Rafael F. Escamilla

  • Contact Information

  • Title: Professor
  • Office Location: Solano 4026
  • Office Hours: Fall 2013 - to be determined
  • E-mail: rescamil@csus.edu
  • Office Phone: (916) 278-6930
  • Mailing Address: Sacramento State University 6000 J Street Sacramento, CA 95819-6020
  • Education: M.P.T.,Elon University, Ph.D., Biomechanics,Auburn University; M.S., Biomechanics, Washington State University; B.A., Mathematics and Physical Education, Linfield College

Professional Interests & Brief Biography

Dr. Escamilla is currently a Professor in the Department of Physical Therapy at California State University, Sacramento, and Research Coordinator at Results Physical Therapy and Training Center in Sacramento.  He previously served as the Director of Research at the Andrews Institute in Gulf Breeze, FL, and as Professor in the Division of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke University Medical Center, served as director of the Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Laboratory, and taught biomechanics courses in the Doctor of Physical Therapy program at Duke University, Durham, NC.  Dr Escamilla received a Ph.D. Degree in Biomechanics from Auburn University and a Master of Physical Therapy degree from Elon University.  He is also a certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (C.S.C.S.).  His area of expertise is in Sports Medicine and Sports Biomechanics. He has published over 50 scientific papers in peer reviewed journals and written numerous book chapters in sports medicine related textbooks.  He has given over 100 professional presentations at scientific conferences, primarily in the areas of knee biomechanics during rehabilitation exercises, overhead throwing biomechanics, and strength and conditioning.  He has work with numerous high profile professional athletes focusing on training and rehabilitation, athletic performance, and injury prevention.  He has practiced as a physical therapist since 2002.  Dr Escamilla has won three national and international powerlifting championships, and was a collegiate athlete in football, baseball, and track.

Courses that I teach in the DPT program

PT 600 Pathokinesiology

PT 620 Therapeutic Exercise I

PT 602 – Evidence Informed Practice I

PT 660 Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist Elective

PT 638 - Health, Wellness, and Ergonomics

PT 636 Geriatrics/Gerontology for Physical Therapists

Select Sample of First Author Publications (see CV for complete list):

Escamilla, R.F., MacLeod, T.D., Wilk, K.E., Paulos, L. & Andrews, J.R.  Cruciate ligament loading during common knee rehabilitation exercises.  Journal of Engineering and Medicine, 226(9): 670-680, 2012.

 Escamilla, R.F., Ionno, M., deMahy, S., Fleisig, G.S., Wilk, K.E., Yamashiro, K., Mikla, T., Paulos, L. & Andrews, J.R.  Comparison of three baseball-specific six-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(7): 1767-1781, 2012.

 Escamilla, R.F., MacLeod, T.D., Wilk, K.E., Paulos, L. & Andrews, J.R.  Anterior cruciate ligament strain and tensile forces for weight bearing and non-weight bearing exercises: a guide to exercise selection.  Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 42(3): 208-220, 2012.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Yamashiro, K.,Mikla, T., Dunning, R.,  Paulos, L., & Andrews, J.R.  Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(12): 3247-3254, 2010.

Escamilla, R.F., Zheng, N., Imamura, R., MacLeod, T.D., Edwards, W.B., Hreljac, A., Fleisig, G.S., Wilk, K.E., Moorman, C.T. III, Paulos, L., & Andrews, J.R.  Cruciate ligament tensile forces between a short-step and long-step forward lunge. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(10):1932-1942, 2010.

Escamilla, R.F., Lewis, C., Bell, D, Bramblet, G., Daffron, J., Lambert, S., Pecson, A., Imamura, R., Paulos, L., & Andrews, J.R.  Core muscle activation in swiss ball exercises compared to traditional abdominal exercises.  Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 40(5):265-276, 2010.

Escamilla, R.F., Zheng, N., Imamura, R., MacLeod, T.D., Edwards, W.B., Hreljac, A., Fleisig, G.S., Wilk, K.E., Moorman, C.T. III, Paulos, L., & Andrews, J.R.  Cruciate ligament tensile forces during the forward and side lunge.  Clinical Biomechanics, 25(3): 213-221, 2010.

 Escamilla, R.F., Yamashiro, K., Paulos, L., & Andrews, J.R.  Shoulder Muscle Activity and Function in Common Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises.  Sports Medicine, 39(8): 663-685, 2009.

 Escamilla, R.F. & Andrews, J.R.  Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports.  Sports Medicine, 39(7): 569-590, 2009.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., DeRenne, C., Taylor, M.K., Moorman, C.T., Imamura, R., Barakatt, E, & Andrews, J.R.  Effects of bat grip onbaseball hitting kinematics.  Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 25: 203-209, 2009.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., DeRenne, C., Taylor, M.K., Moorman, C.T., Imamura, R., Barakatt, E, & Andrews, J.R.  A comparison of age level on baseball hitting kinematics.  Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 25: 210-218, 2009.

Escamilla, R.F., Zheng, N., Imamura, R., MacLeod, T.D., Edwards, W.B., Hreljac, A., Fleisig, G.S., Wilk, K.E., Moorman, C.T. III, & Andrews, J.R.  Patellofemoral compressive force and stress during the one leg squat and wall squat.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(4): 879-888, 2009.

Escamilla, R.F., Zheng, N., Imamura, R., MacLeod, T.D., Edwards, W.B., Hreljac, A., Fleisig, G.S., Wilk, K.E., Moorman, C.T. III, & Andrews, J.R.  Cruciate ligament force during the wall squat and one leg squat.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(2): 408-417, 2009.

 Escamilla, R.F., Zheng, N., Imamura, R., MacLeod, T.D., Edwards, W.B., Hreljac, A., Fleisig, G.S., Wilk, K.E., Moorman, C.T. III, & Andrews, J.R.  Patellofemoral compressive force and stress between a short and long step forward lunge.  Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 38:11, 681-690, 2008. 

 Escamilla, R.F., Zheng, N., MacLeod, T.D., Edwards, W.B., Hreljac, A., Fleisig, G.S., Wilk, K.E., Moorman, C.T. III, & Imamura, R.  Patellofemoral compressive force and stress during the forward and side lunge with and without stride.  Clinical Biomechanics, 23:8, 1026-1037, 2008.

 Escamilla, R.F., Barrentine, S.W., Fleisig, G.S. Zheng, N., Takada, Y., Kingsley, D., &  Andrews, J.R.  Pitching biomechanics as a pitcher approaches muscular fatigue during a simulated baseball game.  American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35:1, 23-33, 2007.

 Escamilla, R.F., Babb, E., DeWitt, R., Jew, P., Kelleher, P., Burnham, T., Busch, J., D’Anna, K., Mowbray, R., & Imamura, R.T.  An electromyographic analysis of traditional and non-traditional abdominal exercises: implications for rehabilitation and training. Physical Therapy, 86:5, 656-671, 2006.

 Escamilla, R.F., McTaggart, M.S.C., Fricklas, E.J., DeWitt, R., Kelleher, P., Taylor, M.K., Hreljac, A., & Moorman, C.T.  An electromyographic analysis of commercial and common abdominal exercises: implications for rehabilitation and training.  Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 36:2, 45-57, 2006.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Andrews, J.R., & Moorman, C.T., III.  Kinematic and kinetic comparisons between american and korean professional baseball pitchers.  Sports Biomechanics, 1(2): 213-228, 2002.

 Escamilla, R.F., Francisco, A.C., Kayes, A.V., Speer, K.P., & Moorman, C.T., III.  An electromyographic analysis of sumo and conventional style deadlifts.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(4): 682-688, 2002.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Zheng, N., Lander, J.E., Barrentine, S.W., Bergemann, B.W.,  Andrews, J.R., & Moorman, C.T., III.  Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during the dynamic squat and leg press exercises.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(9): 1552-1566, 2001.

 Escamilla, R.F., Lowry, T.M., Osbaryl, D.C., & Speer, K.P.   Abiomechanical analysis of sumo and conventional deadlifts during the 1999 special olympics world games. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(8): 1345-1353, 2001.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Lowry, T.M., Barrentine, S.W., & Andrews, J.R.  A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the squat during varying stance widths. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(6): 984-998, 2001.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Zheng, N., Barrentine, S.W., & Andrews, J.R.  Kinematic comparisons of 1996 olympic baseball pitchers.  Journal of Sports Science, 19: 665-676, 2001.

 Escamilla, R.F.  Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(1): 127-141, 2001.

 Escamilla, R.F., Francisco, A.C., Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Welch, C.M., Kayes, A.V., Speer, K.P., & Andrews, J.R.  A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of sumo and conventional style deadlifts.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (7): 1265-1275, 2000.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Andrews, J.R, & Speer, K.P.  Effects of throwing overweight and underweight balls on baseball throwing and pitching. Sports Medicine, 29(4): 259-272, 2000.

Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Zheng, N., Barrentine, S.W., Wilk, K.E., & Andrews, J.R.Biomechanics of the knee during closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chainexercises. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(4): 556-569, 1998.

 Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Zheng, N., & Andrews, J.R.  Kinematic comparisons of throwing different types of baseball pitches.  Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 14(1):1-23, 1998.

Select Sample of First Author Book Chapters (see CV for complete list):

Escamilla, R.F.  Core trunk stabilization.  In J.S. Dines, D.W. Altchek, J.R. Andrews, N.S. ElAttrache, K.E. Wilk, L.A. & Yocum (Eds.), Sports Medicine of Baseball (pp. 498-511).  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2012.

 Escamilla, R.F.  Core Stability of the Lumbopelvic-Hip Complex.  In A.L. Chen (Ed.), Orthopaedic Care of the Mature Athlete (pp 113-136).  American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: Illinois, 2011.

 Escamilla, R.F. Electromyographic activity during upper extremity sports.  In K.E. Wilk, M.M. Reinold, & J.R. Andrews (Eds), The Athletes Shoulder (pp 385-400). Churchill Livingstone Elsevier: Philadelphia, 2009.

Escamilla, R.F. & Yamashiro, K.M. Open and closed kinetic chain rehabilitation for the upper extremity.  In K.E. Wilk, M.M. Reinold, & J.R. Andrews (Eds), The Athletes Shoulder (pp 603-625). Churchill Livingstone Elsevier: Philadelphia, 2009.

 Escamilla, R.F. & Wickham, R.  Exercise based conditioning and rehabilitation.  In G. Kolt & L. Snyder-Mackler (Eds), 2nd Edition, Physical Therapies in Sports and Exercise (pp 149-170). Churchill Livingstone Elsevier: Philadelphia, 2007.

 Escamilla, R.F.  Exercise testing and prescription.  In K.P. Speer (Ed), Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation for Active Older Adults (pp. 19-47).  Human Kinetics: Champaign, 2005.

 Escamilla, R.F. & Wickham, R.  Exercise based conditioning and rehabilitation.  In G. Kolt & L. Snyder-Mackler (Eds), Physical Therapies in Sports and Exercise. Churchill Livingstone: 2003.

 Escamilla, R.F., Lander, J.E., & Garhammer, J. Biomechanics of Powerlifting and Weightlifting Exercises.  In W.E. Garrett & D.T. Kirkendall (Eds), Exercise and Sport Science (pp. 585-615). Lippincott Williams & Wilkens: Philadelphia, 2000.

 Escamilla, R.FNormal and abnormal muscle and ligament physiology.  In G.J.Sammarco (Ed.),  Rehabilitation of The Foot and Ankle (pp. 77-94).  Mosby: St. Louis, 1995.

Select Sample of Professional Presentations (see CV for complete list):

Comparison of three baseball-specific six week training programs on shoulder strength and power in high school baseball players.  60th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, May 2013.

Elbow mechanics during baseball pitching.  2013 Northern California Sports Medicine Education, Sacramento, CA, February 2013.

The effects of baseball training programs on shoulder function.  2013 American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meetings, San Diego, CA, February 2013.

Strength and power development in baseball training programs.  2012 California Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference, Santa Clara, CA, September 2012.

SLAP injuries and the role of the biceps in the overhead throwing athlete.  The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD July 2012.

Electromyographic analysis of trunk and hip muscles during swiss ball bridging exercises performed with two different ankle positions.  59th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, CA, June 2012.

Analysis of trunk exercises for both open and closed chain activities.  Clinical Medicine and Sports Science Applications to the Hip and Trunk, Northeast Seminars, Seattle, WA April 2012.

Weight room considerations for hip and trunk forces generated in fundamental movements used in training for sport.  Clinical Medicine and Sports Science Applications to the Hip and Trunk, Northeast Seminars, Seattle, WA April 2012.

Biomechanics and pathomechanics of the throwing shoulder.  30th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, AL January 2012.

Biomechanics and pathomechanics of the throwing elbow.  30th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, AL January 2012.

Biomechanics of the Long Biceps Brachii in the Throwing Shoulder.  The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine 2011 Annual Conference. San Diego, CA, July 2011.

Patellofemoral joint biomechanics during exercises used to strengthen quadriceps and hip musculature.  58th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Denver, CO, June 2011.

Comparison of Three Baseball-Specific Six-Week Training Programs on Throwing Velocity in High School Baseball Players.  58th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Denver, CO, June 2011.

Current concepts on trunk and lower extremity: Examination, integration, and training.  Northeast Seminars, Costa Mesa, CA July 2010; San Francisco, CA September 2010

Knee Ligament loading for lower extremity exercises.  Sports Medicine Symposium of the Americas, Houston, TX June 2010

Plyometric training – transition from rehab to strength and conditioning.  Sports Medicine Symposium of the Americas, Houston, TX June 2010

Principles and adaptations of resistance training.  Sports Medicine Symposium of the Americas, Houston, TX June 2010

An electromyographic analysis of the shoulder while performing exercises using the bodyblade classic and pro.  57th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Baltimore, MD, June 2010.

Lifting Technique Affects Knee Joint Loading and Potential Injury.  2010 Injuries in Football Course, Andrews-Paulos Research and Education Institute, Pensacola Beach, FL, April 2010.  

How to Protect your Patellofemoral Joint While Strengthening Your Lower Extremity.  2010 Injuries in Football Course, Andrews-Paulos Research and Education Institute, Pensacola Beach, FL, April 2010.

Comparison of three resistance training programs on shoulder strength and power.  28th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, AL January 2010.

Training programs that increase throwing velocity.  28th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, AL January 2010.

Principles and adaptations of resistance training.  2009 Team Concept Conference, Sports Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV Dec 2009.

Cruciate ligament loading during common lower extremity exercises.  2009 Team Concept Conference, Sports Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV Dec 2009.

Plyomeric training.  2009 Team Concept Conference, Sports Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV Dec 2009.

Certified strength and conditioning specialist symposium.  2009 California Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference, Pasadena, CA, October 2009.

Cruciate Ligament Tensile Forces During Lunging with Varying Techniques.  Presented at the 56th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Seattle, WA, May 2009.

Biomechanical and EMG Anlaysis of Specific Lower Extremity Exercises.  Presented at the 2009 Injuries in Football Course, Andrews-Paulos Research and Education Institute, Pensacola Beach, FL, April 2009.  

Squat and Lunge Exercises for Knee Rehabilitation.  Presented at the 27th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Houston, TX, January 2009.

Four Week Training Program for Adolescent Baseball Players.  Presented at the 27th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Houston, TX, January 2009.

Biomechanics and EMG in Rehabilitation of Patellofemoral Joint.   2008 Team Concept Conference, Sports Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, Dec 2008.

Biomechanical Analysis and EMG Activity as it Relates to ACL and/or PCL.   2008 Team Concept Conference, Sports Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, Dec 2008.

Which Exercise are Best for Glenohumeral and Scapulothoracic Muscles.   2008 Team Concept Conference, Sports Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, Dec 2008.

Essentials of Strength and Conditioning Symposium.   2008 California Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference, Oakland, CA, September 2008.

Patellofemoral Compressive Force and Stress During the Forward and Side Lunge With and Without a Stride.   55th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, May 2008.

Shoulder and Elbow Biomechanics and Pathomechanics of the Overhead Throwing Athlete.   55th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, May 2008.

Biomechanics of the throwing shoulder.   26th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Columbia, SC, January 2008.

Biomechanics of the throwing elbow.   26th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Columbia, SC, January 2008.

Patellofemoral force and stress during the long and short step forward lunge.   2007 California Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference, Los Angeles, CA, September 2007.

Cruciate ligament force between the forward lunge and side lunge with and without a stride.   2007 California Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference, Los Angeles, CA, September 2007.

Cruciate Ligament Force During the Wall Squat and One Leg Squat.   31tst Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Palo Alto, CA, August 2007.

Cruciate Ligament Force Between the Forward Lunge Long and Short With and Without a Stride.   31tst Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Palo Alto, CA, August 2007.

Training and rehabilitation implications for the trunk and extremities while performing swiss ball and conventional exercises: An electromyographic analysis.   15th  International World Confederation for Physical Therapy Congress, Vancouver, Canada, June 2007.

An Electromyographic Analysis of Plank and Swiss Ball Exercises: Training and Rehabilitation Implications.   54th annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, New Orleans, LA, May 2007.

Knee Biomechanics during Closed Chain Exercises.   25th Annual Injuries in Baseball Course, American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, AL, January 2007.

Patellofemoral stress and muscle activity during common knee rehabilitation exercises.   3rd Congress of the International Association of Physical Therapists Working with Older People, Istanbul, Turkey, November 2006.

Professional Associations


Professional Membership:

2001-present               American Physical Therapy Association

1999-present               American Society of Biomechanics

1995-present               American College of Sports Medicine

2001-present               International Society of Biomechanics in Sports

1990-present               National Strength and Conditioning Association

Curriculum Vitae

Eagle Lake

The library quad

bike rider below Guy West Bridge

Guy West Bridge

Mexican Volcanic Belt cinder cones

Mariposa Hall

University Union

University Union