Recent faculty scholarship and related activity (selected)


Jeffrey Wilson published “The “German Forest” as an Emblem of Germany’s Ambivalent Modernity,” in Different Germans, Many Germanies: New Transatlantic Perspectives, ed. Konrad Jarausch, Harald Wenzel, and Karin Goihl.  Oxford: Berghahn, 2016. 

Mona Siegel published “Feminism, Pacifism, and Political Violence in Europe and China in the Era of the World Wars,” Gender & History, special issue, “Gender & Global Warfare in the Twentieth Century,” 28, 3 (November 2016), 641-659. 

Jeffrey Wilson's The German Forest: Nature, Identity, and the Contestation of a National Symbol, 1871-1914, has appeared in paperback with the University of Toronto Press. 


Mona L. Siegel has published "The Dangers of Feminism in Colonial Indochina" in French Historical Studies 38, 4 (October 2015): 661-689.

Congratulations to Beth Slutsky on the publication of her book Gendering Radicalism: Women and Communism in Twentieth Century California (University of Nebraska Press, 2015).

Kenneth Owens, professor emeritus of history and ethnic studies, has published Empire Maker:  Aleksandr Baranov and Russian Colonial Expansion into Alaska and Northern California (University of Washington Press, 2015).

Rebecca Kluchin was awarded a library travel grant from Princeton University to study at the Mudd Manuscript Library. She also gave a talk at the Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard University in April 2015 entitled “Pregnancy and Personhood: The Maternal-Fetal Relationship in America, 1850-the Present” and presented her research at the Western Association of Women's Historians annual conference in Sacramento in May.

Chris Castaneda presented a paper "From Brooklyn to Barcelona: Spanish Immigrant Cigar Makers in the Anarchist Network" to the Southwestern Anthropological Association in Long Beach, CA, in May 2015. He presented his (with Lee Simpson) edited volume River City and Valley Life as part of the Friends of the Library Author Lecture Series, Sacramento State University Library in April. He also received a Student-Faculty Research Activities Funding grant from the College of Arts & Letters for a translation project that employed two students, Sigrid Benson and Maria Elena Elias, to assist in the translation of Spanish language newspapers.

Nikolaos Lazaridis managed a successful mission to North Kharga Oasis as part of the NEH-funded project "Travelers' inscription from Kharga Oasis, Egypt" in December 2014 and January 2015. He presented the research paper "Ancient travelers' inscriptions from Kharga oasis: a progress report" to UC Berkeley's Ancient History & Mediterranean Archaeology forum in February 2015 and published the article “Crossing the Egyptian desert: Epigraphic work at Kharga oasis”, in Maarav: a Journal of Northwest Semitic 19.1-2 (2012) [January 2015]: 117-129.

Joseph A. Palermo appeared on the radio show Political Junkie with Ken Rudin where he discussed Robert F. Kennedy’s 1968 presidential campaign. He also wrote the entry “Kennedy, Robert” for the Dictionary of American History, Supplement: America in the World, 1776 to the Present.

Brendan Lindsay's award-winning monograph Murder State (2012) was published by the University of Nebraska Press in a paperback edition in January 2015.


Jeffrey Dym (director) and Michael Vann (writer and narrator) completed a documentary film “Cambodia’s Other Lost City: French Colonial Phnom Penh.” 

Aaron J. Cohen published several peer-reviewed articles, including one titled "'Our Russian Passport': World War I Monuments, Transnational Commemoration and the Russian Emigration in Europe, 1918-39," The Journal of Contemporary History 49, no. 4 (October 2014): 627-651.

Nikolaos Lazaridis received a major grant: 2014 National Endowment for Humanities Scholarly Editions and Translations award.

Joseph A. Palermo published a chapter titled "Robert F. Kennedy" in A Companion to John F. Kennedy, ed. Marc Selverstone (Wiley 2014).

In September 2014, Michael Vann traveled to Russia to give a paper titled “Tropical Cold War Horror: Pengkhianatan G30 S/PKI and the Traumatised Culture of Suharto’s New Order,” for the conference The Cold War on Film: Then and Now  organized by the German Historical Institute, Moscow, Russia. He also published an article, “When the World Came to Southeast Asia: Malacca and the Global Economy,” in Education About Asia 19, no. 2 (2014).

Mona Siegel presented “Negotiated Truth: The Franco-German Historians’ Agreement of 1951 and the Long History of Cultural Demobilization after the Great War.” at the The Academic World In the Era of the Great War conference at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland in August 2014.

Rebecca Kluchin received a 2014-2015 Foundation for the History of Women in Medicine Fellowship from Harvard's Countaway Library of Medicine. She also gave a talk, “Physicians’ Roles in Voluntary and Forced Sterilizations in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s,” at the Ohio University School of Medicine in April 2014 and was a guest on Capital Public Radio's “Insight” program in March.

Jeffrey Wilson published a peer-reviewed article: “‘The Holy Property of the Entirety of the People’: The Struggle for the ‘German Forest’ in Prussia, 1871-1914,” Environment and History 20, no. 1 (February 2014): 41-65. He also commented on two panels at the German Studies Association meeting in Kansas City in September 2014: “German Wood: Material and Metaphor from Forest to Fireside and Beyond” and “Geography, Nature, Ecology, and the German Spatial Imaginary.”

Mitch Numark published an article “The Emergence of Resistant Judaism in Colonial Bombay: Christian Missionaries, Cochin Jews, and the Hebraization of India’s Bene Israel Jews, 1738-1905” in the volume Dimensions of the Christian Encounter with the Religions of India: Aims, Possibilities, Ramifications, edited by Karin Preisendanz and Johanna Buss (Vienna: De Nobili Research Library, 2014).

Brendan Lindsay's peer-reviewed article, “Humor and Dissonance in California’s Native American Genocide,” appeared in American Behavioral Scientist 58, no. 1 (January 2014): 97-123. He presented at two scholarly conferences in fall 2014: one a paper titled "Child Stealing, Guardianship, and Genocide" at the University of California, Riverside, and the other a talk titled "Indigenous Genocide and Settler Colonialism" at the Western Historical Association's 54th Annual Conference. 


At the 28th Annual California Indian Conference in October 2013 at CSU Sacramento, Brendan Lindsay gave a paper titled “Fostering Cultural Genocide: California Indian Wards in Non-Native Households in the Late Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth Century.”

Chris Castaneda and Lee Simpson edited a volume of essays called River City and Valley Life: An Environmental History of the Sacramento Region (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2013). Castaneda wrote the chapter “Recalling Rancho Seco: Voicing a Nuclear Past,” while Simpson, with former student Lisa Prince, contributed "The Invention of Old Sacramento: A Past for the Future."

Mitch Numark's peer-reviewed article “The Scottish ‘Discovery’ of Jainism in Nineteenth-Century Bombay” appeared in Journal of Scottish Historical Studies 33, no. 1 (May 2013): 20-51.

Jospeph A. Palermo's book The Eighties was published and is available from Pearson Publishing.

Mona Siegel participated in the Capital Public Radio's production of “Spring Fever: 100 Years of the Rite of Spring,” produced by Capital Public Radio, May 2013.

Nikolaos Lazaridis published and article “Physical characterization in ancient Egyptian narrative literature” in Égypte Nilotique et Méditerranéenne 6 (2013): 123-137.

Michael Vann received a Fulbright Scholar Award to Indonesia for the Spring semester 2013. He also published an article “Haunted house, haunted history: Visitors to Semarang’s Lawang Sewu find competing narratives of history, memory and popular culture” in Inside Indonesia in July.


Nikolaos Lazaridis was invited in December by the Classics Department at UC Davis to give a talk titled “And now, without delay, tell me your name, so I can offer you a gift…: Naming strategies in ancient Greek and Egyptian narrative literature.” He also has recently published three entries in Blackwell’s Encyclopedia of Ancient History (2012) on “Ptah,” “Bastet,” and “Humor and satire, Pharaonic Egypt.”

Christopher Castaneda wrote a review of Jeff D. Makholm's The Political Economy of Pipelines: A Century of Comparative Institutional Development that was published on He also wrote an article titled The Lesson of San Bruno: History Repeats Itself that was published in Public Works Society, the newsletter of the Public Works Historical Society.

Emeritus Professor Ken Owens is the author of "Far From Zion: The Frayed Ties between California's Gold Rush Saints and LDS President Brigham Young," which appears in the current number of California History, the journal of the California Historical Society (Volume 89, Number 3, 2012). Since his retirement in May 2000, Owens' fly fishing excursions have taken him to Kodiak Island, Belize, and Yucatan among other destinations. He has also been developing skills as a classical pianist of an advanced age. Presently he is completing a biography of Aleksandr Baranov, the first chief manager of the Russian-American Company, due for publication in 2013.

A film review essay by Mike Vann titled "The Dark Side: French Men Becoming Monsters in Algeria" has appeared on H-France.

Mitch Numark's essay "The 'Scottish' Discovery of Jainism in Nineteenth-Century Bombay" has won the 2012 De Nobili Research Library (Association for Indology and the Study of Religion) Prize for best essay on the topic "Dimensions of the Christian Encounter with the Religions of India."

Mona Siegel has a book review of Daniel Hucker's Appeasement and Public Opinion in Britain and France in the July 2012 issue of French History.

An article by Kirsten Harjes and Mona Siegel, “Disarming Hatred: History Education, National Memories, and Franco-German Reconciliation from World War I to the Cold War,” appeared in the History of Education Quarterly 52, no. 3 (August 2012): 370-402.

Arthur Williamson's essay "George Buchanan and the Patriot Cause” has appeared in C. Erskine and R.A. Mason (eds.), George Buchanan: Political Thought in Early Modern Britain and Europe.

Jeffrey Wilson's monograph The German Forest: Nature, Identity, and the Contestation of a National Symbol, 1871-1914 appeared in print from the University of Toronto Press.

Two articles by Aaron Cohen have been accepted for publication in the book project Russia's Great War and Revolution 1914-22, forthcoming 2014). They are titled "The Feast in the Time of Plague: The Russian Art World, Easel Painting, and the Experience of War and Revolution, 1914-22" and "Russian Monuments to the First World War: Where Are They? Why Are They?"

Mike Vann's article "Hanoi in the Time of Cholera: Epidemic Disease and Racial Power in the Colonial City" has appeared in Laurence Monnais and Harold J. Cook (eds.), Global Movements, Local Concerns: Medicine and Health in Southeast Asia (National University Singapore Press, 2012).

Katerina Lagos gave a paper titled "Debt, Sovereignty, and Civil Society" at Simon Fraser University in April. She also spoke on "Contextualizing the Greek Crisis: A Greek Default Lost in the Aftermath of the 1929 Stock-Market Crash." In February, Lagos presented a paper at the European Studies Centre of St. Antony's College, Oxford: "Minority Challenges to Greek National Identity: The Case of Greek Jewry."

Scott Lupo has a contract with a publisher to produce "Televangelism: A Historical Encyclopedia."

Nikolaos Lazaridis delivered the paper “Cyclops, you asked my name…My name is Nobody. Eponymous and anonymous characters in ancient Egyptian literature” at the 2012 Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt at Providence, RI.

Aaron Cohen's article "'Our Russian Passport': World War I Monuments, Transnational Commemoration and the Russian Emigration in Europe, 1918-39" was accepted for publication in The Journal of Contemporary History.

Mike Vann has given or will give the following papers: “'You Need Another Lover Like You Need a Hole in Yo Head’: Rithy Panh takes on Marguerite Duras,” French Colonial Historical Society conference (New Orleans), “Sex and the Colonial City: Whiteness, Gender, and Power in French Hanoi, 1898” for the Ici, Indochine conference at Bucknell University, “Images of Empire: Using Film to Teach French Colonial History” at the Society for French Historical Studies meeting in Los Angeles, “Adding “Economists with Guns” to the Narrative of Communists with Guns: Creating Balance in Teaching the World History of the Cold War in Southeast Asia,” Southeast Asia and World History: A WHA Symposium, Siem Reap, Cambodia (January).

Arthur Williamson has participated or will participate in several conferences: the Pacific Coast Conference on British Studies at the Huntington Library, the History Department faculty seminar at Harvard University, and the British Studies Conference in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Mitch Numark's article "Hebrew School in Nineteenth-Century Bombay: Protestant Missionaries, Cochin Jews, and the Hebraization of India's Bene Israel Community" is being published in Modern Asian Studies. He also presented a paper "The Scottish 'Discovery' of Jainism in the Nineteenth Century: Scottish Missionaries, 'the Jain Religion,' and the Jains of Colonial Bombay" at the Economic and Social History Society of Scotland Conference: Scotland and the Indian Subcontinent at Glasgow University in March.

Chloe Burke published a book review of The Confederate and Neo-Confederate Reader: The "Great Truth" about the "Lost Cause" edited by James W. Loewen and Edward H. Sebasta in a special review section on the Civil War Sesquicentennial in The Public Historian, February 2012 issue.

Nikolaos Lazaridis has prepared in Greek a summary of his public lecture on fieldwork in the Kharga Oasis, Egypt, presented last June in Athens, Greece, and now published in the Onassis Foundation magazine ΑΩ, volume 54 (2011), 34-37 (for an online version, see

Jeffrey Wilson presented a paper “Modeling Community in the Prussian East: The Tuchel Heath, 1893–1918,” at American Historical Association, Chicago, January 2012.


Jeffrey Wilson published an article "'Waldverwüster' und Waldverliebte: Der Konflikt um den Berliner Grunewald (1860 – 1920)," in Unter Bäumen: Die Deutschen und der Wald. Eine Kulturgeschichte, ed. Ursula Breymayer and Bernd Ulrich (Dresden: Sandstein, 2011): 217-221.

Mona Siegel presented a scholarly paper titled “The Dangerous Nature of Feminism in Colonial Indochina” at the annual meeting of the Western Society for French Historical Studies in Portland, Oregon (November).

Mike Vann gave one paper, "Tales of Two Colonial Cities: Official and Unofficial Images of French Hanoi,” at the annual meeting of the Western Society for French Historical Studies in Portland, Oregon (November 2011) and another, “The Revolution of Industrial Transportation: Selected Documents to Teach a World in Transition, at the California World History Association conference in La Jolla (October).

Jeffrey Dym posted his video "Die for Japan: A Look at Japanese Propaganda Kamishibai (paper plays) (国策紙芝居)" on Vimeo.

In November, Nikolaos Lazaridis was invited by the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures and the Department of Classics at UCLA to give a paper titled "Storytelling in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece: A comparative study of literary narrative styles and techniques." He also presented a paper, "Crossing the Egyptian desert: Epigraphic work at Kharga oasis," at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research in San Francisco.

Chris Castaneda's essay, "Natural Disasters in the Making: Fossil Fuels, Humanity, and the Environment," appeared in the October 2011 (Vol. 25, No. 4) issue of the Organization of American Historians Magazine of History.

In November, Mitch Numark presented "Hebrew School in Nineteenth-Century Bombay: Protestant Missionaries, Cochin Jews, and the Hebraization of India's Bene Israel Community" at the American Academy of Religion Conference in San Francisco. In October he gave the paper "Scottish Missionaries, 'Jainism,' and the Jains of Colonial Bombay" at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's 40th Annual Conference on South Asia.

Aaron Cohen gave a paper "Love in the Time of Cholera: The Russian Art World and the War Experience, 1914-1917" at the Clemson Conference on Russian Culture During the First World War and Revolution, 1914-1922 in Clemson, South Carolina.

The Eighties by Joseph A. Palermo will be available starting in November 2011.

Mike Vann has edited a textbook called Twentieth Century Voices: Selected Readings in World History, available soon.

In July Jeff Wilson gave a paper titled "The 'German Forest' as an Emblem of Germany’s Ambivalent Modernity" at the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies' 25th Anniversary Alumni Conference.

Mike Vann, Jeffrey Dym, and Aaron Cohen presented papers on a panel on "Images of Power, Victory, and Defeat in Vietnam, China, and Japan" at the 2011 World History Association conference in Beijing, China. Their papers were: "Representing Losers as Winners in Imperialized Space: Russian Émigré Monuments in China, 1920-1941” (Cohen), “Wartime Propaganda Tropes as Seen in Japanese Kamishibai (Paper Plays)" (Dym), and "“The Chinatown Syndrome: Mapping Racial Power and Sexual Desire in Colonial Vietnam" (Vann).

Aaron Cohen presented a paper "Русские памятники Первой мировой войны. Где они? Почему они" at a June 2011 conference in St. Petersburg on the First World War and Russian Revolution.

Mitch Numark's article "Translating Dharma: Scottish Missionary-Orientalists and the Politics of Religious Understanding in Nineteenth-Century Bombay," has appeared in the Journal of Asian Studies 70, no. 2 (May 2011): 471-500.

Rebecca Kluchin's article "Pregnant? Need Help? Call Jane: Service as Radical Action in the Abortion Underground" was published in Breaking the Wave: Women, Their Organizations, and Feminism, 1945 to 1985, ed. Jacqueline Castledine and Kathleen A. Laughlin (Routledge, September 2010).

Mona Siegel published an article “Western Women and Anti-Imperialism: The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom’s Anti-Opium Campaign” in Peace and Change 36, no. 1 (January 2011): 34-61. Her book The Moral Disarmament of France has been reissued in paper.

Joe Palermo has written recent book reviews for the Journal of American History, Presidential Studies Quarterly, and the Journal of Southern History.

In January 2011 Arthur Williamson gave a paper "Roman Past, Jewish Future: Politics, Poetry, and the End of Empire" at the Huntington Library. He has also written recent book reviews for Renaissance Quarterly, The Journal of the Faculty of Religious Studies, McGill University, and International Review of Scottish Studies.

2010 and earlier

Aaron Cohen has written recent book reviews for The Public Historian and Slavic Review.

Phil DiMare has an article "Imagining the American West in 19th Century Art" scheduled for publication in Americana, an e-Journal of American Studies in Hungary, in the spring of 2011. His Movies in American History: An Encyclopedia is scheduled for a June 2011 release date for ABC-CLIO. Other works in progress include American Visions: A History of the American People (Routledge, spring 2013 release date), Religion and Politics in America: An Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, spring 2013 release date), and Ethnic America on Film: An Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, spring 2014 release date).

Patrick Ettinger's 2006 article "'We sometimes wonder what they will spring on us next"' was selected to be included in the new book Major Problems in the History of North American Borderlands to be published by Cengage. His book Imaginary Lines was chosen for a 2010 Southwest Book Award sponsored by the Border Regional Library Association. The book has also now been issued in paperback by the University of Texas Press.

Nicholas Lazaridis delivered a paper "The form and role of description in ancient Egyptian and Greek narratives" at the November 2010 Scholars' Colloquium of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities/La Société pour l'Étude de l'Égypte Ancienne in Toronto.

In November 2010, Mike Vann gave a paper "L’état colonial à Ha Noi" for a colloquium at the Sorbonne's Centre d’histoire de l’Asie contemporaine.

Nicholas Lazaridis presented the paper "Repetition as a narrative device in Ancient Egyptian and Greek Literature" in the 61st annual meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt at Oakland, CA. His review of Alejandro Botta's The Aramaic and Egyptian Legal Traditions at Elephantine: An Egyptological Approach was recently published in the Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 2.1 (2010), pp. 36-38.

Arthur Williamson published an article (with Paul McGinnis, CSUS Department of English), "Politics, Prophecy, Poetry: The Melvillian Moment, 1589-96, and its Aftermath," in the Scottish Historical Review (2010). He also presented a paper ("Roman Past, Jewish Future: History, Eschatology, and Anglo-Scottish Politics") at the Renaissance Society Annual Meeting in Venice.

Aaron Cohen's article "Long Ago and Far Away: War Memorials, Public Relations, and the Memory of the Russo-Japanese War in Russia, 1907-1914" appeared in The Russian Review (2010).

Rebecca Kluchin's book Fit to Be Tied: Sterilization and Reproductive Rights in America, 1950-1980 was published by Rutgers University Press (2009). It won the Western Association of Women’s Historians 2009 Francis Richardson Keller-Sierra Award for best monograph. It was issued in paper in February 2011.

Patrick Ettinger published Imaginary Lines: Border Enforcement and the Origins of Undocumented Immigration, 1882-1930 (University of Texas Press, 2009). His book was named a finalist for the 2009 William P. Clements Prize for the best non-fiction book on Southwestern America.

Aaron Cohen has published Imagining the Unimaginable: World War, Modern Art, and the Politics of Public Culture in Russia, 1914-1917 (University of Nebraska Press, 2008).

Arthur Williamson has published Apocalypse Then: Prophecy and the Making of the Modern World (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008).

Aaron Cohen received a Fulbright scholarship to teach and conduct research in Helsinki, Finland while on sabbatical in the fall of 2007.

Chloe Burke and Chris Castaneda co-edited a special issue of The Public Historian (Summer 2007) on the history of eugenics and co-authored the introductory article, "The Public and Private History of Eugenics: An Introduction." The issue includes Rebecca Kluchin's article "Locating the Voices of the Sterilized." The Public Historian is published by the University of California Press and is available on-line at

Mona Siegel presented two invited lectures at Stanford University. The first, "History and Collective Memory," was presented to the nationalism seminar of the Asia-Pacific Research Center. The second, "History, Memory, and Reconciliation in France and Asia: Lessons for Asia" was jointly sponsored by Stanford's Asia-Pacific Research Center and European Forum.

Lee Simpson and Public History PhD candidate Paul Sandul have co-authored a pictorial history of Fair Oaks. The work, published by Arcadia, was published in January.

Arthur Williamson has recently co-edited a volume titled Shaping the Stuart World, 1603-1714: The Atlantic Connection (Leiden, 2006). The volume, co-edited with Allan Macinnes of the University of Aberdeen, includes an essay by Prof. Williamson titled "Education, Culture, and the Scottish Civic Tradition." He will also deliver an address to the Humanists of Roseville on Sunday, May 5th, titled "Religion and Barbarism (again): The Decline of Public Life and the Rise of Transcendent Religion, 1975-2005."

Jeffrey Dym was recently awarded a prestigious Fulbright research fellowship to pursue his research on Japanese paper play theater (Kamishibai). He will be spending the Spring 2007 semester in Japan carrying out his research.

On February 20th, Joseph Palermo spoke on local radio station KFBK, AM 1530, on the significance of President's Day.

The Spring 2006 "Heroes of Capitalist Labor" award has been symbolically awarded to Lecturer Loretta Reed for the largest enrollments across all her classes (220 students). This semester, she is teaching the most number of students for any faculty member in the Department. The runners up were Scott Lupo (161), Al Holland (129), and Philip DiMare (128).

Loretta Reed presented a talk at San Francisco State University titled "In the Eye of the Beholder: Perceptions of the Beautiful and the Grotesque in the Classical World." Her talk is part of a lecture series being sponsored by the Classics Department.

Former CSUS lecturer Kathleen Cairns is now teaching at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. She has a new book coming out on Nellie Madison, the first woman on death row in California. It will be published in spring 2007 by the University of Nebraska Press.

Patrick Ettinger has an article forthcoming in the Western Historical Quarterly (Summer 2006) titled "‘We sometimes wonder what they will spring on us next’: Immigrants and Border Enforcement in the American West, 1882-1930."

Rebecca Kluchin gave a paper at the annual meeting of the American Association for the History of Medicine (AAHM). The conference is being held in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The title of the paper is "Collaborative Efforts: The Movement to Regulate Contraceptive Sterilization in the United States, 1970-1980."

Mona Siegel presented the paper "Paroles féministes et pacifistes en temps de la Grande guerre" (Feminist and pacifist words during the Great War) at an international colloquium in Carcassonne, France (April 21-22, 2006). She will be presenting an English-language version of the paper at Sacramento State on May 7 as part of the humanities conference "Artful Strategies and Negotiated Risks: Gender and Identity across Borders and Disciplines." For more information on this upcoming conference, go to

Michael Vann presented a paper, "When Post-Colonialism is Not Funny: Identity and Empire in the Cartoons of the Prophet Controversy," at a College of Arts and Letters colloquium sponsored by Dean Jeffrey Mason.

Arthur Williamson gave a paper at the University of St. Andrews as part of a conference on the political theorist George Buchanan (1506-1582) and the early modern Atlantic World. The paper has the title, "George Buchanan and 'the Patriot Cause'."