PHILOSOPHY 4 Critical Thinking
Syllabus for Spring Semester 2016
A study of the basic skills of good reasoning needed for the intelligent and responsible conduct of life. Topics include: argument structure and identification, validity and strength of arguments, common fallacies of reasoning, use and abuse of language in reasoning, principles of fair play in argumentation. 3 units.
This course satisfies area A3 of your G.E. (General Education) requirements.
This course is 100% online, including the tests. To get started, keep reading.
The required textbook Logical Reasoning is free online at my personal webpage.
For extra reading, I recommend your working on the aids at http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073386677/student_view0/index.html. Here you will find a summary of our main topics, frequently asked questions with answers, and sample tests with answers.
Our course is designed to improve your skills at making wise decisions about what to believe and do. Your critical thinking skills are your skills at making judgments. Not snap judgments that occur in the blink of an eye, but those that require careful reasoning. You use your critical thinking skills to
Critical thinking skills involve the ability to reason, to assemble evidence in order to develop a position, and to communicate complex ideas. These skills are of practical value to anyone, and they will be taught here independent of subject matter. Our course will not emphasize philosophy over any other subject.
The central core of your critical thinking skills is your ability to detect, generate and evaluate reasons given in support of some conclusion--often also called the "key proposition" or "point" or "thesis." This conclusion might be a new belief, or a change in plans, or a confirmation that the old beliefs are OK. The technical term for a set of reasons plus their intended conclusion is an "argument." So, the central topic of this course is argumentation. Not argumentation in the sense of quarrels, but argumentation in the sense of giving reasons to support some conclusion or other.
Although many scientific studies of decision making have shown that people tend to sift sources of information to reinforce existing views rather than to accept the view that is backed up with the better argument, our course is designed to combat this tendency.
Our course is concerned with many other kinds of reasoning, not just with argumentation. For example, when you are trying to summarize a complicated explanation of allowable deductions on I.R.S. income tax form 1040 Schedule C, you are not arguing, but you are doing some critical thinking. Your critical thinking skills also involve assessing whether a group of sentences are consistent, whether a proposed definition is successful, whether an advertisement gives any useful information about a product, whether a speaker is being fair in a debate with an opponent, whether a statistical sample was biased, and whether someone's supposed scientific explanation is unscientific. Our course will try to improve all these other critical thinking skills, too, even though they don't directly involve arguments.
In a republican nation, whose citizens are to be led by reason and persuasion and not by force, the art of reasoning becomes of the first importance.
One of your most valuable critical thinking skills is illustrated in the following transcript of a radio conversation between a large U.S. naval ship and Canadian authorities off the coast of Newfoundland.
Big Ship vs. Little Ship?
Americans: Please divert your course 15 degrees to the North to avoid a collision with us.
Canadians: Recommend you divert YOUR course 15 degrees to the south to avoid a collision.
Americans: This is the Captain of a U.S. Navy ship. I say again, divert YOUR course.
Canadians: No, I say again, you divert YOUR course.
Americans: THIS IS THE AIRCRAFT CARRIER USS MISSOURI. WE ARE A LARGE WARSHIP OF THE U.S. NAVY. DIVERT YOUR COURSE NOW!
Canadians: This is a light house. Your call.
Hopefully, the Captain changed course. Critical thinkers will alter their beliefs and actions in light of new evidence; inflexible thinkers won't.
This is a skills course, not a look-up-the-answer course nor a know-these-facts course. The primary goal of this course is to develop your critical thinking skills, not to teach you a body of knowledge. More specifically, the course aims to improve your ability to do the following things:
1. Locate the argument in a passage.
2. Detect errors of reasoning and explain how the reasoning is in error.
3. Evaluate evidence and make appropriate inferences from that evidence.
4. Write an argumentative essay.
5. Rewrite an argumentative essay to improve it.
6. Write clearly as you apply the other skills on this list.
7. Distinguish whether an argument's conclusion follows with certainty or only with probability from its premises [i.e., distinguish deductive validity from inductive strength].
8. Identify the issue in a disagreement.
9. Detect logical inconsistency.
10. Detect and remove vagueness and ambiguity, but do not confuse being explicit with being objective.
11. Identify the point or purpose of someone's remark. For example, is the person asking something, making a claim, arguing, threatening, or joking?
12. Create an argument that avoids the fallacies and makes a plausible case for a position on an issue.
13. Given an argument on a controversial issue, create a plausible argument that defends a different (or the opposite) conclusion.
14. Detect when someone is asking a bad question because it's loaded, or because it's a red herring.
15. Explain in what way this is analogous to that.
16. Compare the quality of two competing explanations.
17. Identify implicit assumptions.
18. Be less gullible than you were before taking the course.
One goal for our course is to improve your writing ability. Our course will require you to write an essay and to answer many essay questions. You will be graded primarily on your depth of understanding of the question but also on your ability to express yourself clearly. Your writing will be evaluated for clarity and proper handling of terms, phrases, and concepts related to the course.
Summary of the course
Here is a more formal presentation of what goes on in this course.
Study tips: As you
read, it's helpful first to skim the assignment to get some
sense of what's ahead. Look at how it is organized and what
cues, if any, the author provides to signify main ideas
(section titles, bold face, etc.). Make your own notes as
you read. Stop every ten or fifteen minutes to look back
over what you've read and try to summarize the key ideas for
yourself. This periodic pausing and reviewing will help you
maintain your concentration, process the information more
deeply, and retain it longer. You'll be given sample
questions now and then to help guide your studying for
future assignments, but answering an actual homework or test
question often will require you to apply your knowledge to
new questions not specifically discussed in class nor in the
book. This ability to use your knowledge in new situations
requires study activities different from memorizing. You
goal is to improve your skills, not simply to memorize
This course has no prerequisites. It is designed to be taken in the second semester of your first year of college, but you can take it any semester you wish.
Add policy: To add the course, try to do so by using CMS, else write the instructor.
Drop policy: This course has participation and activity requirements, including engagement with the course material on a weekly basis. Students who do NOT participate during the first two weeks by either completing the first week’s email assignment or taking the second week’s quiz will be considered to have abandoned the course and may be administratively dropped by the instructor. Re-enrolment will not be permitted.
To drop the course on purpose during the first two weeks, use the CMS system. No paperwork is required. After the first two weeks, it is harder to drop, and a departmental form from the Dept. Secretary in MND 3000 is required; the form is called "Petition to Add/Drop After Deadline." It requires stating a good reason for dropping. As with any university course, make sure you are dropped officially (by CMS or the instructor or the department secretary); don't simply walk away into the ozone, or else you will get a "U" grade for the course, which is counted as an "F" by the Registrar in computing your GPA (grade point average).
Your grade will be determined by weekly assignments, a midterm and a final examination. The weekly assignments might be homework questions, an essay, a crossword puzzle, or a quiz.
Notice in the Schedule of Assignments and Due Dates how much each week's assignment counts as part of the total grade. In SacCT you will find a more detailed description of each week's assignment. Weekly assignments are due before 8:00 p.m. each Friday evening.
You are expected to do your own final work on all assignments, although it is OK to discuss assignments with others before you actually write up or choose your answers. Emailing another student for their answers so you can use them is not what is meant by allowable discussion.
After each homework or quiz is graded, I'll post within SacCT your grade, the grading scale, and a representative sample of the answers with explanations of them. The grading scale and answers will be viewable by everyone, but your own grade will be viewable only by you and me; no other student will be able to see your grade.
It's possible for everyone to get an A grade; I don't curve the results to force a certain number of D's and F's, although I sometimes curve the other way to ensure a sufficient number of A's each week.
This is a paper-less course. You don't give me any paper. You do all the work for this course online, and you do not need to meet me or the other students in a classroom. For each week's assignment, you send in all your work by computer, and you can do your work any day of that week and any time of day you wish. You are never required to be online at any particular time of the day nor any particular day of the week. But you have to do something each week. Also, even if you can view a future week's assignment, you are not allowed to complete it in advance, because the assignment might change a few hours before the week begins.
It is recommended that you finish an assignment before the last day it is due, namely Friday at 8:00 P.M. That way, if you are sick the day the assignment is due or have computer problems that day or just have a bad hair day, then you won't have to worry about the Phil. 4 assignment.
You are penalized for not doing an assignment on time even if you are sick, because you had an entire week to do that assignment. There are no make-up assignments. Without this policy, I'd be having to create make-up assignments for every week for somebody.
However, there may be occasional opportunities to do extra credit to boost low grades from earlier weeks. Also, I do accept late homework assignments. Late homework is accepted for three days after the due date; but the later it is, the more your grade suffers, which is one-third letter grade per day, including weekend days. The quizzes must be taken by the due date.
Below is a schedule of topics to be covered in the course.
Week 1: What is critical thinking?
Week 2: Claims, issues, and arguments
Week 3: Argument structure
Week 4: Ways to be imprecise
Week 5: Evaluating claims
Week 6: Arguing fairly
Week 7: Fallacies
Week 8: Review
Week 9: Midterm
Week 10: Consistency and contradiction
Week 11: Deductive logic
Week 12: Explanations
Week 13: Inductive Arguments
Week 14: Scientific reasoning
Week 15: Review for the final exam
You will take this course wholly on a computer (any computer is OK) over the Internet (the web).
If you don't already have a SacLink account, go ahead and get one. CSUS students can create a free SacLink account for web access (and e-mail, too) by visiting https://mysaclink.csus.edu/Default.aspx, or by making a short visit in person to any student computer lab.
No matter how, or from where, you access the Internet, in order to gain entry to the SacCT web pages of our course you will need to use your SacLink User name as your SacCT username and use your SacLink password as your SacCT password.
During the semester, you will need elementary word processing skills such as the ability to type a sentence, to create and save a text document using your favorite word processor, and to copy a paragraph from that document and paste it into another document (such as into an e-mail to me). These skills aren't hard to learn, and the best way to get them is either to ask a friend for advice or to visit a campus computer lab and talk to the student assistant there. Don't bother reading manuals.
Campus computer labs
The labs are here.
You can get help about SacLink and about getting your computer to work with our course by going to one of these labs and speaking with the student who is running it or telephoning their help desk at 278-7337.
If you have a disability and require accommodations, you need to provide disability documentation to SSWD, Lassen Hall 1008 (phone 916-278-6955). Then see me early in the semester so that appropriate arrangements can be made to ensure your full participation in class.
My office is in Mendocino Hall 3022, phone 278-7384. My weekly office hours are Tuesdasy and Thursday 11:45-12:30 and online in SacCT every Wednesday night 9-10 P.M. Feel free to stop by or to telephone at any of those times for the Tuesday and Thursday office hours. If those times are inconvenient for you, then we can arrange an appointment for an alternative time. Also, you may send e-mail to me any time at firstname.lastname@example.org. Once you have access to the SacCT program (see below), you should try to send email to 'Bradley Dowden (Instructor)' within SacCT's own mail program; you can expect a response within 24 hours, usually much sooner. My personal page at http://www.csus.edu/indiv/d/dowdenb/index.htm has the telephone number of my secretary, a mailing address, and other info about me.
The first thing to do is to go get a SacLink password, then enter SacCT below and read all the web pages in the table of contents for the first week of our course, and follow their directions. Below is more info on how to do this.
When you've been officially registered in the course by the University, a day later they will tell the SacCT computer program to allow you into the rest of the course (provided the semester has started), but I probably won't allow students into SacCT until a few days before the semester begins.
Your SacCT UserName is the same as your SacLink account name. It looks something like sac87888, but with different numbers just for you. When you apply for a SacLink account, the Administration's computer looks deep into your soul and assigns you a number based on the order in which you applied.
When you get a SacLink account, you will also get a SacLink password which you will use each time you use the University computers. It is also your password into the SacCT program. You will never need to tell me this password (and be suspicious of any email that asks you for it).
I'm glad you're interested in taking the course. I'll try to help you if you get stuck somewhere. If you ever have trouble with SacLink or with logging in to the University from home, call the SacLink help desk at 916-278-7337, and the student who answers will try to help you. If you have trouble and are in a campus computer lab, just ask the student who is working in the lab. If all that fails, contact me.
Your goal now is to enter SacCT. You do not need to do anything in order to be registered for access to SacCT; once you are offically enrolled in the course with the University, then your enrollment in SacCT happens automatically about one day later. Usually I will not allow students into SacCT until a few days before classes begin.
But even if you aren't yet registered and so cannot log in, you can still go to the first SacCT webpage and browse all the helpful links.
And for a first exercise in critical thinking while you are waiting for the course to begin, you should know that on eBay you can purchase a $1,000 scholarship to our university for only $500. This is a great deal, and no person is turned down. Please send your $500 to the address in Nigeria that is indicated in the eBay announcement that will arrive soon.
If you are already registered in the course and have your Saclink password (and it's less than a week before the semester begins), then you are ready to enter SacCT.