Michael Epperson
M.A. & Ph.D. University of Chicago Areas of Specialization: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Science, History of Science, Foundations of Quantum Theory, History and Philosophy of Science and Religion
B.A. Santa Clara University Concentrations in English & Biological Sciences
History and philosophy of science, foundations of quantum theory, metaphysics, issues in science & religion. Additional interest in philosophical & theological ethics and ethics in warfare
california state university, sacramento

Research Professor & Director

Center for Philosophy and the Natural Sciences
College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
California State University, Sacramento

Center for Philosophy
and the
Natural Sciences



ST4320: U.C. Berkeley - Graduate Theological Union
Orthodox Christianity and Modern Science - SPRING 2015
Patriarch Athenagoras Orthodox Institute

This course explores the nature of the relationship between modern science and Orthodox Christian theology, with particular emphasis given to recent advances in fundamental physics and cosmology. In dialogue with the western scholastic tradition, we will not only engage in comparison and contrast; we will also examine the extent to which both traditions can be correlated as mutually supportive, complementary approaches that together enable unique solutions to problems not easily attended to by either tradition exclusively.

Despite the increasing breadth and depth of scholarship exploring an integrative relationship of Christian theology and modern science, the waters remain stubbornly turbulent. Whatever the particular countercurrent—political, theological, ideological, scientistic, or some combination of these—the trajectories leading to fundamental disengagement can all be traced back to a common first principle: The dualistic separation of faith and reason. The western scholastic tradition has carefully defined specific bridges spanning this dualism, and in recent history these bridges have served as a foundation for the Roman Catholic integration of science and Christian theology.

By contrast, the Orthodox theological tradition has characterized faith and reason not as a metaphysical dualism of mutual exclusion determined by the particular object of experience (Divine or Natural), but rather as a duality of mutual implication in every act of experience—i.e., a duality without reduction to dualism. This course will explore the ways in which the Orthodox understanding of the relationship between faith and reason, and its unique emphasis of experience in the integration of faith and reason, can be fruitfully applied to the current science and religion debate in complementary relation to the western scholastic approach—particularly with respect to the unique problems raised by modern physics and cosmology.

History 107: History of the Physical Sciences
California State University Sacramento

In recent decades, the physical sciences and the technologies borne of them have become so highly formalized and proprietary that it is often the case that even professional scientists have little understanding of fundamental scientific theories beyond the scope of their own specialties. Thus, as our worldview becomes more and more centered upon science and technology, the average person is ironically expected to understand less and less about that worldview. One might therefore anticipate that as science continues to evolve, our engagement of it will likely steadily drift more and more toward passive, uncritical inheritance rather than active participation. But the history of the evolution of our current scientific worldview reveals a very different story—one where it is not only the science that drives the worldview, but also one in which the worldview drives the science.

In this course, we will study the historical evolution of the intuitive (i.e., in the Greek sense of careful koinos nous or careful ‘common sense’--classically logically reasonable) conceptual foundations of modern physics, including the special and general theories of relativity and the latest interpretations of quantum mechanics. We will trace this evolution from its origins in ancient natural philosophy, through the medieval and early modern periods and the Enlightenment, up to the present day. Along the way, we will see that even though this historical evolution entails a succession of scientific revolutions, the underlying conceptual frameworks that survived this process were always fundamentally intuitive in the sense described above—i.e., accessible via classical logical reasoning. This fact has important implications for the continued evolution and popular understanding of the physical sciences.

History 104A: History of Ancient Science
California State University Sacramento

An examination of the historical foundations and evolution of ancient science, from the natural philosophy of the Presocratics to post-Aristotelian thought, with emphasis on issues relating to Greek physics, medicine, and mathematics. In particular, we will explore the ways in which the conceptual frameworks underlying ancient Greek philosophy of nature (what we call ‘science’ today) evolved into the medieval period, were later challenged by the scientific revolution of the early modern period, and then partially rehabilitated in modern science in several fundamental areas, including current theories of complex natural systems and quantum physics.

History 104B: History of Medieval Science
California State University Sacramento

This course explores the medieval evolution of the key conceptual frameworks underlying ancient Greek natural philosophy (what we call ‘science’ today). In particular, we will examine the ways in which this evolution was initially propelled via the translations from Greco-Islamic natural philosophy, the integration of this philosophy with Christian Latin civilization in Western Europe, and the refinement of this integration via the invention of the university in 1088. Central to our investigation will be the specific ways in which this medieval evolution of natural philosophy was foundational to the scientific revolution that followed it—i.e., the often overlooked evolution of ancient and medieval ideas within this revolution.

History 104C: History of Modern Physical Science
California State University Sacramento

This course explores the historical evolution of contemporary physical science from its innovative conceptual foundations in the early modern period. Along the way, we will examine the ways in which these revolutionary innovations themselves can be seen as evolutionary innovations—a history of natural philosophical inquiry and methodology that can be traced back through the medieval period to antiquity. Some of these revolutionary/evolutionary innovations include the replacement of geocentric cosmology with heliocentrism, the rise of the hypothetico-deductive ‘scientific’ method, the development of new techniques and technologies of observation, and the rise of formal mathematical models. While past historians of science had established the conventional term “Scientific Revolution” to collectively describe these innovations, modern scholarship in history and philosophy of science (HPS), which more rigorously examines both the history and the conceptual content of scientific ideas, has done much to illuminate the evolutionary character of these innovations. As a result, contemporary history and philosophy of science recognizes that the rise of modern science is understood properly not as a single historical period in time, but rather as an extensive process of formal, natural philosophical inquiry whose roots
begin in antiquity and whose ascent and role in society continues to evolve.

Philosophy 125: Philosophy of Science
California State University Sacramento

Philosophy of science involves more than just the study of the philosophical problems inherent in the nature and methodology of scientific reasoning, which is one of the topics we will explore in this course; it also involves the study of the conceptual foundations, presuppositions, and implications of the theories that form the core framework by which the physical world is understood by the natural sciences in general. Whatever one might say of this framework, in the practice of modern science, it is understood to be physically causal, conceptually logical, and mathematically describable--yet impossible to reduce fully to any of these features. This provides an important clue to their relationship in both the philosophy and practice of modern science, and is a central topic in this course.

Philosophy 27: Early Modern Philosophy
California State University Sacramento

In this course we will examine the ways in which the scientific and political innovations of 16th, 17th, and 18th century Europe both influenced and were influenced by the rationalist and empiricist philosophical traditions that competed and flourished during this period. We will study the works of several philosophers working within these two traditions as they struggled to make sense of the scientific and social revolutions sweeping through their world; and we will see how their work would, in turn, help shape these revolutions, even as they continue to evolve today. One focus of the course, then, will be to examine the ways in which these philosophical traditions have maintained their relevance and influence in our own millennium as 21st century science struggles with its most difficult questions yet.

Our survey will entail a careful reading and critique of the metaphysical and epistemological schemes developed by key philosophers of the early modern period, beginning with the work of Bacon, Galileo, and Descartes and concluding with Kant and his revolutionary synthesis of the rationalist and empiricist worldviews.

Philosophy 25: Ancient Philosophy
California State University Sacramento

In this course we will examine the origin of Western philosophy by carefully surveying ancient Hellenic theories of knowledge and existence. Our survey will begin with the Milesian School, continue through the pre-Socratic philosophers and Plato, and conclude with the philosophy of Aristotle.

Philosophy 131: Philosophy of Religion
California State University Sacramento

To what extent do religious prescriptions for 'how things should be' derive from philosophical descriptions of 'how things are?' If natural philosophy is understood to be descriptive of nature, and religion is understood as intending to be explicative of nature (and explicative of the descriptions given by philosophy), then the relationship among philosophy, science, and religion might be mutually illuminative. This course will examine this relationship from the standpoint of metaphysics as a bridge between philosophical theology and natural philosophy.

Philosophy 2: Philosophical Ethics
California State University Sacramento

When we strive to live as ethical individuals, or struggle to promote a more ethical society, upon what foundation do we secure our principles? Do we primarily use reason to deduce them from some deeper, more fundamental set of philosophical principles, themselves similarly deduced? Or do we primarily inherit our ethical principles from theological tradition as revealed truths rather than reasoned truths? If the answer is both, then where and how do these methods intersect? Can 'revealed' ethical principles be analyzed rationally? Do 'reasoned' philosophical principles involve faith-based presuppositions (e.g., belief that the universe is truly a 'reasonable' and 'objectively real' place)?

In this course we will examine these and related questions by surveying the works of several major thinkers in philosophical ethics, from the Classical and Hellenistic periods through the 20th Century. Along the way, we'll apply our analyses to several present-day ethical controversies which we will examine within the context of our readings.

Philosophy 101: Ethics & Social Issues
California State University Sacramento

In this course, we begin with the notion that our ethical principles and the opinions and actions they generate can and should be rationally justified. We will then explore and critique several competing systems of thought by which we might do so, particularly as regards the moral controversies that divide society today, such as abortion, the death penalty, affirmative action, sexism, war and peace. Our discussions will emphasize an analytical and critical discussion of those philosophical theories and competing viewpoints most popular in contemporary American culture.

Philosophy 6: Introduction to Philosophy
California State University Sacramento

If you are tempted to divide your college courses into those that are ‘useful’ and those that are ‘useless,’ beware!  If you believe that the useful courses are only those that describe how the world works (including how you work)—economics, chemistry, marketing, biology, business, engineering—consider this: Thinking about why the world is the way it is could be a big advantage in understanding how the world works the way it does. Some might even say that describing how without exploring why is no real knowledge at all—or even more severely, in the words of Socrates, that “…an unexamined life is not worth living.”

In this course, we will examine some of the why questions that lie at the very heart of all the useful courses: What does it all matter?  Is it all matter?  Is mind matter?  If it’s all matter, including me, why am I free and conscious and a computer isn’t?  Could one ever be?  What kind of being am I?  Am I a body, or do I have a body?  What does it mean to know something correctly?  How do we know a ‘fact of knowledge’ is really knowledge of a fact?  Does reason have rules?  What is the good life?  Can there be good without evil?  Would the useful courses even exist today without the useless ones taught ages and ages ago?

The Metaphysics Behind Quantum Mechanics-II

University of Chicago - Graham School - Spring 2004


Reductionism, mechanism, materialism... These are the bedrock concepts upon which modern science has been erected over the past 400 years. We understand the whole by understanding its more fundamental parts. But what does it mean when the physics by which we describe and understand the whole is found to be incompatible with the physics by which we describe and understand the parts? Such incompatibility is, for many, the defining feature of the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics. Recent years, however, have brought new interpretations of quantum theory which suggest a simple and intuitive way by which we might bridge the realms of the quantum and the classical--a bridge which might one day lead physics to its long sought-after goal of providing a truly coherent and unified description of nature.

This course will offer an introduction to quantum mechanics for non-specialists by way of these modern, metaphysically coherent interpretations--interpretations developed by theorists including Nobel laureate Murray Gell-Mann, Robert Griffiths, Roland Omnes, Wojciech Zurek, and others. We will examine the way in which these new interpretations bridge quantum and classical mechanics--a way suggestive of a coherent, logical, and empirically adequate metaphysical scheme.

The Metaphysics Behind Quantum Mechanics-I

University of Chicago - Graham School - Winter 2004


The ages-old partnership between speculative philosophy and the natural sciences has endured a great many adventures throughout the millennia; and if there is a single Ariadnian thread by which we might retrace those steps, it is the concept of mechanistic-materialism. Its endurance throughout the past 2600 years derives from its intuitive and ever-reliable three-way bridging of scientific prediction and description of nature, and philosophical explanation of nature--a bridging of the Platonic chasm separating what appears to be from what is reasoned to be. By the time this journey had stretched into the 17th century, the classical physics of Newton and Galileo would seem intuitively reasonable, as would the mechanistic-materialistic worldview it presupposed and exemplified. And in the 20th century, it was assumed that quantum physics would also find its home in the framework of mechanistic-materialism. But after several decades of work, it has not, as evinced by the many notorious quantum-classical paradoxes, dualisms and other fundamental conceptual difficulties such as the infamous 'problem of measurement.'

This course will examine the difficulties of the modern mechanistic-materialistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, and explore recent alternatives.

God and 21st Century Science

University of Chicago - Graham School - Spring 2003

What do modern cosmological models have to say about creatio ex nihilo? What does quantum mechanics have to say about the functions of freedom and determination in the birth of the universe, its ongoing evolution, and its ultimate fate? What does complexity theory have to say about the evolution of life and the various 'argument by design' approaches to the question of the existence and nature of God? This course will examine these and other questions raised by current conversations among philosophy, science, and religion.

Problems in Science and Religion:
Religion and the History, Methods, and Theories of Modern Science

University of Chicago - Graham School - Spring 2003

If physics, metaphysics, and religion offer mutually incompatible explanations of the universe, then the science and religion dialogue is of dubious value. But if physics is understood to be descriptive of nature, and metaphysics and religion are understood to be explicative of nature (and explicative of the descriptions given by physics), then the science and religion dialogue is not only reasonable; it might even be useful. This course will examine the historical evolution of these two competing characterizations of the relations among science, philosophy, and religion.


Michael Epperson, Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead

Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead

2nd ed. Oxford University Press & Fordham University Press, 2012. (1st ed. Hardcover, Fordham University Press, 2004).



Στήν μνήμη τής αγαπημένης γιαγιάς
Ελένης Ξηρουχάκη - Δοκιμάκη
(1910 - 1999)

Foundations of Relational Realism: A Topological Approach to Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Nature

Lexington Books / Rowman & Littlefield (June, 2013).


Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead by Michael Epperson

Michael Epperson, Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead

Physics and Speculative Philosophy: Potentiality in Modern Science

De Gruyter, Berlin / New York (March, 2016)



2013-2015: Experimental Application of the Relational Realist Formalism: A Topological, Sheaf-Theoretic Explication of Quantum Geometric Phases By Analysis of Experimental Data on the Aharonov-Bohm Effect, the Pancharatnam Phase, and the Quantum Hall Effect, Toward a Unified Interpretation

Co-Principal Investigator: Dr. Elias Zafiris, Senior Research Fellow in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, University of Athens; Co-Investigator: Dr. Karim Bschir, Chair for Philosophy, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich

2010-2013: Foundations of Relational Realism: The Evolution of Set Theoretic External Relations to Category Theoretic Internal Relations Toward an Event-Ontological, Topological Approach to Quantum Mechanics

(Principal Investigator)

Co-Investigators: Dr. Elias Zafiris, Senior Research Fellow in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, University of Athens; Dr. Karim Bschir, Chair for Philosophy, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich; Dr. Stuart Kauffman, Research Professor, Complex Systems Center, University of Vermont; Dr. Philip Stamp, Professor, Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia; Dr. Timothy Eastman, Plasmas International & NASA-Goddard.


M. Epperson, E. Zafiris, Foundations of Relational Realism: A Topological Approach to Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Nature. Lexington Books / Rowman & Littlefield, New York, 2013.

E. Zafiris, V. Karakostas, “A Categorial Semantic Representation of Quantum Event Structures,” Foundations of Physics 43 (2013)

M. Epperson, E. Zafiris, K. Bschir, “Decoherence: A View from Topology,” European Journal for the Philosophy of Science (in review)

M. Epperson, “Quantum Mechanics and Relational Realism: Logical Causality and Wavefunction Collapse,” Process Studies, 38:2 (2009)

E. Zafiris, A. Mallios, “The Homological Kähler-De Rham Differential Mechanism, Part I: Application in General Theory of Relativity,” Advances in Mathematical Physics (2011)

E. Zafiris, A. Mallios, “The Homological Kähler-de Rham Differential Mechanism, Part II. Sheaf-Theoretic Localization of Quantum Dynamics,” Advances in Mathematical Physics (2011)

Stamp, P., Takahashi, S. et al. “Decoherence in crystals of quantum molecular magnets.” Nature 476.7358 (2011): 76-79

E. Zafiris, "Boolean information sieves: a local-to-global approach to quantum information," International Journal of General Systems 39, No. 8 (2010): 873–895

M. Epperson, "Relational Realism: The Evolution of Ontology to Praxiology in the Philosophy of Nature." World Futures, 65:1, Routledge (2009): 19-41

M. Epperson, “The Mechanics of Concrescence: Quantum Theory and Process Metaphysics,” Studia Whiteheadiana (Polish translation), Vol 4 (2010): 159-190

2008 - 2010: Logical Causality in Quantum Mechanics: Relational Realism and the Evolution of Ontology to Praxiology in the Philosophy of Nature

(Principal Investigator) NEWS RELEASE

Co-Investigators: Dr. Henry P. Stapp, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Dr. David Finkelstein, Professor, Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Timothy Eastman, Group Manager, Heliospheric Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

2007: Quantum Mechanical Investigations into the Causal and Logical Orders and the Physical Basis of Possibility

(Principal Investigator)

Co-Investigators: Dr. Henry P. Stapp, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Dr. David Finkelstein, Professor, Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Timothy Eastman, Group Manager, Heliospheric Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; William Kallfelz, Ph.D. candidate, Committee for Philosophy and the Sciences, Foundations of Physics Group, University of Maryland

additional papers

M. Epperson, “The Common Sense of Quantum Theory: Exploring the Internal Relational Structure of Self-Organization in Nature”, Coding as Literacy, Metalithicum 5. Ed. Vera Bühlmann and Ludger Hovestadt. Birkhäuser (forthcoming, 2015)

M. Epperson, “Event-Ontological Quantum Mechanics: A Process Theoretic Approach” in Physics and Speculative Philosophy: Potentiality, Actuality, and Process. Eds. Timothy Eastman, Michael Epperson, and David Ray Griffin. Berlin: De Gruyter (forthcoming, 2015)

K. Bschir, M. Epperson, E. Zafiris, “Decoherence: A View from Topology,” European Journal for the Philosophy of Science (in review)

M. Epperson, “The Mechanics of Concrescence: Quantum Theory and Process Metaphysics,” Studia Whiteheadiana (Polish translation), Vol 4 (2010): 159-190)

M. Epperson, “Quantum Mechanics and Relational Realism: Logical Causality and Wavefunction Collapse,” Process Studies, 38:2 (2009) (PDF)

M. Epperson, "Relational Realism: The Evolution of Ontology to Praxiology in the Philosophy of Nature," World Futures, 65:19-41, Routledge (2009)

M. Epperson, “Whitehead and Modern Physics” in Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought. Nicholas Rescher, Johanna Seibt, Michel Weber, eds. Ontos-Verlag (2008)

documentary films
The 11th Day - Written and Produced by Michael Epperson - Produced and Directed by Christos Epperson

The 11th Day is a 90-minute documentary film whose subject is the Cretan civilian resistance movement in World War II. In 2005 the film made a theatrical tour throughout the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. (Click here for more information.) The DVD was released in 2006 and is available in stores worldwide. It can also be purchased from:


British Embassy Special Screening

July 1, 2009

Documentary Film The 11th Day on
The History Channel.

(See below for more information on my documentary film projects.)
reviews, publicity & links for The 11th Day
(click below)
Chicago Tribune Sacramento News and Review
Sacramento Bee Beacon Record
Movies Online Canada
The Boston Globe Denver Westword
Internet Movie Database

production stills

Still photo of a beach landing scene Pyro effect during the beach landing scene
Metropolitan of Kydonia Agathangelos Xirouhakis blessing allied troops and the people of Crete in May 1941
Execution scene Tired actors playing tired British soldiers
Cast taking a much needed break Photo of my brother Christos and me, mugging it up with our favorite German paratrooper


Outpost Harry - Written by Michael Epperson - Directed by Christos Epperson

Outpost Harry is a documentary feature film that recounts the little-known story of how 150 Greek and U.S. soldiers stationed in a remote outpost behind enemy lines defeated over 3000 Chinese infantrymen in one of the most brutal sieges of the Korean War. Like a modern day Battle of Thermopylae, they were ordered to 'hold at all costs' against an enemy that vastly outnumbered them--an enemy that flooded into the tiny outpost night after night for over a week. Click here for more information. Click here for a University News release on the film.

recent & upcoming events
January 13-16, 2017 - Arizona State University - School of Arts, Media, and Engineering - Ontogenesis Group - Inaugural Workshop - Santa Fe, New Mexico. Stuart Kauffman; Sha Xin Wei, Arts, Media & Engineering, ASU; Michael Epperson, History and Philosophy of Science, CSUS-CPNS; Cary Wolfe, Cultural Theory, Rice University; Philip Thurtle, Comp. History of Ideas, Univ. of Washington; Adam Nocek, Arts, Media & Engineering, ASU
January 13-16, 2016 - Arizona State University - School of Arts, Media, and Engineering - Synthesis Center: Workshop: "Quantum Mechanics + Category Theory After Deleuze and Badiou"
June 4-7, 2015 - Pomona College: 10th International Whitehead Conference: Seizing an Alternative: Toward an Ecological Civilization: 4 talks: [1] Section IV, Track 2 “The Ontology of Contextualized Potentiality: Whiteheadian Internal Relations in Quantum Mechanics”; [2] Section IV, Track 7: "The Behavioral, Neural, and Quantum Correlates of Conscious Experience: A Whiteheadian Look at Tononi and Koch’s Integrated Information Theory"; [3] Section II, Track 1: “A Mereotopological Bridging of Prehension and Extension in Whiteheadian Cosmology”; [4] Section IX, Track 4: “The Whiteheadian Path from Quantum Physics to Psychology: A Critique of Selected Shortcuts in Parapsychology”
May 22-24, 2014 - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich: "The Ontology and Epistemology of Internal Relations: Bridging the Physical and Conceptual in Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information": 5th Metalithikum Klausur Symposium: "Computation as Literacy: Self Organizing Maps"
April 5-6, 2014 - University of California, Davis: "Potentiality and Contextuality in Quantum Mechanics": Symposium, "Quantity/Quality: The Problem of Measure in Philosophy and Science"
March 13-14, 2014 - National Research Council - National Academy of Sciences: Ford Foundation Panelist. Beckman Center, UC Irvine
October 9, 2013 - Institute of Philosophy, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, Hungary: "Potentiality and Contextuality in Quantum Mechanics: The Relational Realist Approach

August 21-23, 2013 -- Symposium: "Relational Realism, Quantum Gravity, and the Holographic Principle" - Institute of Physics University of Amsterdam

Sebastian de Haro - Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam
Dennis Dieks - Philosophy of Science - Utrecht University
Jeroen van Dongen - Institute for History and Foundations of Science - Utrecht University
Elias Zafiris - Theoretical physics and mathematics, CPNS and Institute of Mathematics, University of Athens
Michael Epperson - Philosophy of Science, CPNS, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, California State University, Sacramento
Karim Bschir - Philosophy of Science - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

historical documentary film projects

Michael Epperson - Writer and Producer, Archangel Films - The 11th Day, Outpost Harry

The 11th Day - Written and Produced by Michael Epperson - Produced and Directed by Christos Epperson


Outpost Harry - Written by Michael Epperson - Directed by Christos Epperson
SACRAMENTO, CA - The soldiers of the Greek Expeditionary Forces called it Outpost “Haros”—the Greek name for Death. It was classic wartime humor, a dark pun borne of a hopeless mission. More than 88,000 rounds of Chinese artillery would pound Outpost Harry—a tiny Korean hilltop no bigger than Times Square, 425 yards behind enemy lines. Defended each night by a single American or Greek company of just over 100 infantrymen, the 3000 Chinese soldiers had anticipated an easy capture. Instead, over a period of eight days, vast waves of Chinese Communist Forces would flood into Harry’s trench lines--more than 13,000 attackers in all. And yet each of the five companies ordered to hold Outpost Harry, when its turn came, held the hill. It was nothing less than a modern-day Battle of Thermopylae.

The nightly Chinese assaults would advance and recede with each passing day--a relentless tide that would churn up a roiling, bloody flurry of hand to hand combat. On the night of the first attack, June 10, 1953, the Chinese had outnumbered Harry’s defenders by 30 to 1. “All total, there was a reinforced CCF regiment of approximately 3,600 enemy trying to kill just over 100 of us,” said Captain Martin Markley, commander of K Company, 15th Infantry Regiment. “There was no time to formally prepare the troops spiritually for the possibility of their death in the battle that was about to take place.” By morning, all but a dozen GIs had been killed or severely wounded. But they had held the hill.

The relentless attacks would continue throughout the week, each evening bringing a flood of Chinese soldiers pouring through barbed wire, and on the worst nights, into Harry’s trenches. “We could see them out there near the wire, falling right on top of each other. It just wasn't human,” said Pvt. William McLennan, 3rd Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, “I guess they wanted Harry. But they didn't get it. They told us to hold it. We did.”

On the seventh day of the siege, Outpost Harry’s defiant, week-long survival and its continued defense were entrusted to the Greek soldiers of Peter Company, Sparta Battalion. Just before the midnight hour of June 17, an entire regiment of nearly 3000 Chinese soldiers burst forth from their positions and stormed the hill’s northern slope. According to official U.S. military records, “Company P of the Greek Battalion, refusing to withdraw, closed in and met the attackers in a furious hand to hand struggle in which many of the enemy were driven off. The aggressors regrouped, quickly attacked a second time, and again gained the friendly trenches. Immediately, the Greek Forces launched a series of counterattacks. After two hours of close-in fighting, the aggressors were again routed and the friendly positions restored.”

It was the last defeat the Chinese Communist Forces could endure in their pursuit of Outpost Harry. Their failed adventure had, in eight days, cost them 4200 casualties. Their entire 74th Division had been decimated. And for the first time in the annals of U.S. military history, five rifle companies together—four American and one Greek—would receive the prestigious Distinguished Unit Citation for the outstanding performance of their shared mission.

Despite its unparalleled intensity, the heroism it engendered, and the international camaraderie uniting its brothers-in-arms, the siege of Outpost Harry is a battle unknown to most, in a war too many have since forgotten. Director-producer Christos Epperson and writer-producer Michael Epperson are proud to announce a new documentary film project dedicated to telling this inspirational story, through interviews with its American and Greek veterans and dramatic re-enactments of key events of the battle. The project was inspired by executive producer Mike Pagomenos, whose father George, an Outpost Harry survivor, recently published his Korean War journal in the Greek language. Following closely in the wake of critical acclaim for the Epperson brothers’ recent World War II documentary, The 11th Day, Archangel Films looks forward to sharing a never-before-seen glimpse into the harrowing ordeal these Greek and American veterans of the Forgotten War met with such courage, and endured with such sacrifice.

Outpost Harry Survivors Association Newsletter - Archangel Films

During our first year of production, we have filmed interviews of nearly 50 veterans in the U.S. and in Greece, and organized the first-ever Reunion of Greek Veterans of Outpost Harry, held September 16th and 17th 2006 in Gazi, Heraklion Prefecture, Crete, Greece. This was exactly 53 years and 3 months to the day that Peter Company of Sparta Battalion walked onto Outpost Harry.

The reunion generated great publicity in the Greek news media, with Metropolitan Sotirios of the Greek Orthodox Church in Korea making the long journey to Greece to attend.

Hellenic Forces Battalion - Greek Expeditionary Force - Korea

Also in attendance was Captain Stephen Sale, Commander of the U.S. Naval Base in Souda Bay, along with U.S. veterans of the Battle for Outpost Harry.

Medals were awarded to the Greek Sparta Battalion veterans by their American counterparts--an award long overdue. We were proud to help make this happen as a part of our film.

Interviews for the Outpost Harry
documentary were carried out in the
Anoghia Suite of the Apollonia Beach Hotel in Amoudara, 9/14-9/18, 2006.


All images and content Copyright 2006 Archangel Films

None of the images on this page may be copied, reproduced, distributed, republished, downloaded, displayed, posted or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, but not limited to, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission.

Christos Epperson, Director/Producer, makes some stills of our members and guests. Francis Riley being interviewed by Outpost Harry writer-producer Michael Epperson.