Child Development 138 (04) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Fall, 2010 

 

 

Introduction

A. What is moral development? 

 

B. Theories

MORALITY AS ROOTED IN HUMAN NATURE:

1. Sociobiology 

 

 

MORALITY AS ADOPTION OF SOCIETAL NORMS:

2. Psychoanalytic 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Social Learning Theory 

 

 

 

 

MORALITY AS SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING:

4. Cognitive-developmental

 

 

 

 

 

II.  Moral behavior:

A. Self-control

1. Delay of gratification/what predicts delay of gratification?

 

 

 

 

 

2. Resistance to temptation  

 

 

 

 

 

3. Improving self-control

 

 

 

 

B. Prosocial Behavior

1. Origins of Prosocial Behavior

 

 

 

 

2. Developmental trends

 

 

 

 

3. Individual differences

 

 

 

 

4. Role of empathy

 

 

 

5. Parenting and prosocial behavior - Krevans & Gibbs

 

 

 

III. Moral Reasoning

A. Piaget

1. heteronomous morality (moral realism)

 

2. autonomous morality (morality of cooperation)  

 

 

CRITICISMS

 

 

 

B. Changes in Distributive (Positive) Justice Reasoning (Damon)

  • observation #2

 

 

 

 

C. Eisenberg - Prosocial Reasoning

1) Hedonistic, pragmatic orientation (preschool, early elementary)

 

 

2) Needs of others orientation (preschool, elementary)

 

 

3) stereotyped, approval-focused orientation (elementary and secondary)

 

 

4) empathic orientation (later elementary, secondary)

 

 

5) internalized values (some secondary students)

 

 

 

 

 

 

D. Kohlberg - reasoning about transgressions

1. Level one - preconventional 

 

 

 

 

2. Level two - conventional 

 

 

 

3. Level three - postconventional

 

 

 

 

SUPPORT FOR STAGES

 

 

 

 

 

CRITICISMS

 

 

 

 

IV. Influences on Moral Development

A. Cultural differences

 

 

 

 

B. Parenting and Disciplinary practices

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top

 

Send problems, comments or suggestions to: hembrees@csus.edu. Updated: August 25, 2010