Child Development 138 (04) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Fall, 2010 

 

Peer Relationships

I. Peers as socializing agents

A. Peers and peer groups

 

 

B. Evidence of the peer group at work

1. Harlow - peer or mother-raised monkeys

 

 

 

2. Anna Freud - war orphans raised in concentration camps .

 

 

 

3. Los Abandonados (video) - what similarities do you see between this peer group and any other peer group.  What differences do you see?

 

 

 

 

 

II. Early sociability/interactions

A. Pretend Play  

 

 

 

B. Social participation in play

Parten (1932)

                     nonsocial play

 

 

                     parallel play

 

 

                     associative play

 

 

                     cooperative play

 

C. Howes and Matheson - cognitive complexity

         Parallel play

 

 

         Parallel aware play

 

 

         Simple Pretend play

 

 

         Complementary and reciprocal play 

 

 

 

         Cooperative social pretend play

 

 

 

         Complex social pretend play

 

 

 

Results:

 

 

D.  Peer group affiliation in adolescence

1. Cliques

 

 

2. Crowds

 

 

 

 

E. Parental influences

 

 

 

 

 

III. Peer status/ Social acceptance

A. Peer acceptance and rejection

 

 

 

 

B. Sociometric techniques

1) ratings

 

2) Nominations status classifications

         popular

 

 

         rejected

 

 

         neglected

 

 

         controversial

 

 

         average

 

 

C. Stability of peer status

 

 

 

 

D. Correlates of peer acceptance/rejection

1.       temperament

2.       cognitive/social cognitive skills

3.       physical characteristics

4.       behavior

5.       cultural and familial influences

6. Attachment

 

 

E. Direction of effects? 

 

 

 

F. Improving status of rejected children (discussion)

 

  

IV.  Friendship

A. Functions of friendships (Hartup):

1. contexts for developing social skills

 

 

2. provide information about self and social world

 

 

3. provide fun, companionship, support for stress

 

 

4. models of intimate relationships (Sullivan - chumships)

 

 

 

B. Characteristics of friendships

1. proximity, similarity

 

 

2.  Gottman

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.  Developmental Changes in friendships

1. Cognitive changes friendship understanding

 

 

2.  behavioral changes in friendships       

 

 

 

D. Effects of friendship

1. Kindergarten/school adjustment

 

 

 

 

 

2. Friendship and peer rejection

 

 

 

3. quality of friendship effects

 

 

 

 4. Long-term effects of friendship and acceptance - e.g., Bagwell et al.

 

 

 

 

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Send problems, comments or suggestions to: hembrees@csus.edu. Updated: August 25, 2010