Child Development 138 (04) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Spring, 2009 

picture of circle of friends

 

Self and Social Cognition

I. Development of the Self

A. Awareness of self

  • Lewis & Brooks-Gunn (1979)

 

 

  • contributors to and consequences of self-recognition

 

B. Self concept

1. Developmental Changes

 

 

 

2. Social comparison

 

 

 

3. Cultural influences

 

 

 

C. Self-Esteem

1. Conceptualizations of self-esteem

   Harter's multidimensional model (subscales) - General self-worth

  • scholastic/cognitive

 

  • physical appearance

 

  •  athletic competence

 

  • social

 

  • behavioral/conduct

 

 

 

  • Self-perception Profile for Children

 

 

 

2. Changes in self-esteem at adolescence

 

 

 

3. Research on self-esteem

  • stability of self-esteem

 

  • Environmental influences (parents/peers)

 

 

  • Culture/ethnicity

 

 

 

  • Limitations of this research

   

 

 

II. Identity Development

A. Erikson and Identity

 

 

 

  • identity crisis?

 

 

B. Marcia

  • diffusion 

 

  • foreclosure 

 

 

  • moratorium

 

 

  • achievement

 

 

 

C. Research

1. developmental progression

 

 

 

 

2. identity can be "uneven"

 

 

 

3. Is it truly a crisis?

   

 

 

4. ethnic identity

 

 

 

 

D. Social factors influencing identity:

1. Parenting

 

 

 

2. Cognitive factors

 

 

3. Schooling

 

 

4. Cultural influences

 

 

Discussion: Identity or Intimacy?

 

 

III.  Social Cognition - Thinking about others

A. Theories of social cognition

1. Cognitive-Developmental

 

 

2. Social Information Processing

 

 

 

3. Selman - Role Theory

 

 

 

B. Social Problem-Solving 

1. Dodge - IP framework 

 

 

2. Spivack and Shure - focus on strategies

 

 

 

C. Person Perception

  • Age changes

 

 

 

D. Perspective-taking

1. Piaget and Selman  

a) Holly dilemma:

    LEVEL 0 - (3-6 years) undifferentiated, egocentric.  

 

                        LEVEL 1 - (4-9 years) Differentiated, subjective/ social-informational role-taking.  

 

LEVEL 2 - (7-12 years) self-reflective, reciprocal.

 

 

                        LEVEL 3 - (10-15) Third-party, mutual.

 

 

 

                       LEVEL 4 (12-15) Social and conventional system role taking 

 

                       

b) Cognitive skills necessary but not sufficient 

 

c) stages are qualitative, invariant

 d) Research confirming model

 

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2. Theory of Mind  

  • belief-desire theory

a) developmental changes

 

 

 

 

b) deception and theory of mind

 

 

 

c) origins of theory of mind

 

 

 

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Send problems, comments or suggestions to: hembrees@csus.edu. Updated: January 15, 2009