Child Development 138 (04) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Spring, 2009 

picture of circle of friends

 

Moral Development

I. Introduction

A. What is moral development? 

 

B. Theories

MORALITY AS ROOTED IN HUMAN NATURE:

1. Sociobiology 

 

 

MORALITY AS ADOPTION OF SOCIETAL NORMS:

2. Psychoanalytic 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Social Learning Theory 

 

 

 

 

MORALITY AS SOCIAL UNDERSTANDING:

4. Cognitive-developmental

 

 

 

 

 

II.  Moral behavior:

A. Self-control

1. Delay of gratification/what predicts delay of gratification?

 

 

 

 

 

2. Resistance to temptation  

 

 

 

 

 

3. Improving self-control

 

 

 

 

B. Prosocial Behavior

1. Origins of Prosocial Behavior

 

 

 

 

2. Developmental trends

 

 

 

 

3. Individual differences

 

 

 

 

4. Role of empathy

 

 

 

5. Parenting and prosocial behavior - Krevans & Gibbs

 

 

 

III. Moral Reasoning

A. Piaget

1. heteronomous morality (moral realism)

 

2. autonomous morality (morality of cooperation)  

 

 

CRITICISMS

 

 

 

B. Eisenberg - Prosocial Reasoning

1) Hedonistic, pragmatic orientation (preschool, early elementary)

 

 

2) Needs of others orientation (preschool, elementary)

 

 

3) stereotyped, approval-focused orientation (elementary and secondary)

 

 

4) empathic orientation (later elementary, secondary)

 

 

5) internalized values (some secondary students)

 

 

 

C . Changes in Distributive (Positive) Justice Reasoning (Damon)

 

 

 

 

D. Kohlberg - reasoning about transgressions

1. Level one - preconventional 

 

 

 

 

2. Level two - conventional 

 

 

 

3. Level three - postconventional

 

 

 

 

SUPPORT FOR STAGES

 

 

 

 

 

CRITICISMS

 

 

 

 

IV. Influences on Moral Development

A. Cultural differences

 

 

 

 

B. Parenting and Disciplinary techniques

 

 

 

        

 

 

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Send problems, comments or suggestions to: hembrees@csus.edu. Updated: January 15, 2009