Child Development 138 (04) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Spring, 2009 

picture of circle of friends




I. Peers as socializing agents

A. Peers and peer groups



B. Evidence of the peer group at work

1. Harlow - peer or mother-raised monkeys




2. Anna Freud - war orphans raised in concentration camps .




3. Los Abandonados (video) - what similarities do you see between this peer group and any other peer group.  What differences do you see?






II. Early sociability/interactions

A. Pretend Play  




B. Social participation in play

Parten (1932)

                     nonsocial play



                     parallel play



                     associative play



                     cooperative play


C. Howes and Matheson - cognitive complexity

         Parallel play



         Parallel aware play



         Simple Pretend play



         Complementary and reciprocal play 




         Cooperative social pretend play




         Complex social pretend play







D.  Peer group affiliation in adolescence

1. Cliques



2. Crowds





E. Parents and peer groups/sociability





III. Peer status/ Social acceptance

A. Peer acceptance and rejection





B. Sociometric techniques

1) ratings


2) Nominations status classifications
















C. Stability of peer status





D. Correlates of peer acceptance/rejection

1.       temperament

2.       cognitive/social cognitive skills

3.       physical characteristics

4.       behavior

5.       cultural and familial influences



E. Direction of effects? 



F. Improving status of rejected children (discussion)



IV.  Friendship

A. Functions of friendships (Hartup):

1. contexts for developing social skills



2. provide information about self and social world



3. provide fun, companionship, support for stress



4. models of intimate relationships (Sullivan - chumships)




B. Characteristics of friendships

1. proximity, similarity



2.  Gottman







C.  Developmental Changes in friendships

1. Cognitive changes friendship understanding



2.  behavioral changes in friendships       




D. Effects of friendship

1. Ladd - Friends and Kindergarten adjustment






2. Friendship and peer rejection




3. quality of friendship effects




 4. Long-term effects of friendship and acceptance - Bagwell et al.




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Send problems, comments or suggestions to: Updated: January 15, 2009