Child Development 138 (04) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Spring, 2009 

picture of circle of friends


Exam Guide #2

See the exam handout for more information about exams. Revised 4/9/09.


Attachment and child care - Ch. 5
attachment/attachment behavior (behaviors which indicate attachment)
Theories of attachment: psychoanalytic (Freud, Erikson) , behaviorist (Drive reduction, operant), cognitive-developmental, ethological (Bowlby) - be able to describe, evaluate & compare
Harlow's study (role of feeding and contact comfort in development of attachment)
different explanations for separation/stranger anxiety (from text)
Effects of early deprivation on humans 
   -  ethological approach
   - development of attachment (preattachment, attachment in the making, etc.)
   - internal working models/secure base
Strange Situation:
  - procedure and how used to assess attachment
  - secure, resistant, avoidant, disorganized classifications
  - alternative measures of attachment (q-set, narratives, adult attachment interview)
  - limitations of SS assessment (e.g., can only be used with young children)
Antecedents of attachment (caregiving vs. temperament hypothesis) and evidence for both
What constitutes caregiving quality? (sensitivity, positive affect, etc)
Links between security of attachment and later adjustment
intergenerational transmission (Fonagy et al.
emotion understanding and attachment (Laible & Thompson)
Cultural variation in attachment
Links between security of attachment and later adjustment
Attachment to fathers (Main and Weston)
Day Care:
    - changing research questions
  - effects of maternal employment
  - quality of care effects
  - characteristics of high quality care
  - family factors associated with alternate care
  - problems with early studies of the effects of daycare, especially on attachment
  - NICHD study – how it’s an improvement over previous research and recent findings)

findings of NICHD study (attachment)

Social Cognition/The Self (Ch. 6)
Social-cognition (definition)
Cognitive-developmental approach (Piaget) vs. Social Information Processing vs. Role theories
Social information processing theory:
 - Attribution/interpretations influencing behavior (hostile attributional bias)
 - contributions/criticisms of theory
 - Social Problem-solving – Dodge’s model 
self-concept and self-esteem (definitions)
"looking glass self" and social basis of self-concept/esteem
emergence of self-recognition and Lewis & Brooks-Gunn (rouge test)
developmental changes in self-concept and person perception
Harter's conceptualization/measurement of self-esteem
role of social comparison, and environment in self esteem
Identity development:
 - Erikson (identity vs. identity diffusion; identity crisis)
 - Marcia's conceptualization (diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, achieved) and dev. changes
 - social influences (parents, peers, culture) on identity development
 - ethnic identity (relation between ethnic identity and attitudes toward other groups)
role of perspective-taking, social cognitive skill in effective social interactions
Spivack & Shure (effects of strategy training)
developmental changes in emotion understanding
Perspective-taking – Selman
 - method for determining perspective–taking (Holly dilemma)
 - characteristics of stages
 - research support
 - problems with model
theory of mind (ToM)
false belief task/correlates of ToM
deception as indicator of theory of mind (Hala, Chandler & Fritz)

Gender and Sex-Role Development (Ch. 8):
gender-typing: gender identity, stereotypes, gender-typed behavior, knowledge (developmental changes)
expressive and instrumental traits
Theories on sex-role development (and evidence/limitations of each theory/be able to integrate and compare these theories):
- Biosocial (+ evidence for biological and social influences on sex-role development)
  - Psychoanalytic
  - Social Learning
  - Cognitive-developmental (Kohlberg)
  - gender schema theory (see figure 8.5)
what the research says about psychological sex differences + limitations to this research (e.g., describes group averages)
myths associated with sex differences and how perpetuated (e.g., social cognition, school)
gender intensification
home influences on stereotypes
Parents' role in gender role development (differential reinforcement)
gender segregation
development of gender-concept (Kohlberg - gender identity, stability, consistency); sex constancy
developmental changes in children's stereotypes
sex differences in sex-typed behavior (e.g., boys more pressured than girls in cross-sex activities)
psychological androgyny
sexuality/ sexual orientation
historical changes in sexual behavior and attitudes
teen pregnancy: consequences and factors which prevent teen pregnancy (video)


Aggression (Ch. 9)
Theories of aggression and implications for reducing aggression (see class handout; be able to compare and contrast these theories) + criticisms for theories
developmental trends in aggression (e.g., changes in form and amount of aggression)
hostile vs. instrumental aggression
retaliatory aggression
sex differences in (overt) aggression
stability of aggression
reasons for decline in aggression with age
relational aggression - Crick and Grotpeter (1995) - relational aggression and adjustment
conflict (destructive vs. constructive) vs. aggression
functions of conflict in social-cognitive development
role of culture in aggression/cultural variations
family effects, parent effects on aggression (e.g., power-assertion)
bully/victims - incidence, types of victims (provocative, passive)
Patterson - how coercive family environments and negative reinforcement contribute to delinquency
The effectiveness of catharsis, creating nonaggressive environments, eliminating payoffs, social cognitive interventions in reducing aggression
Social cognition and aggression

Essay Questions:

ONE of the following questions will be on the exam.

(1) Compare and contrast the behaviorist and the ethological accounts of attachment.  Which account best explains attachment and why?  Be sure to support your answer with examples and a well thought out evaluation of the theories, as well as some discussion of Harlow's work.   

(2) What does it mean to take a cognitive-developmental (Piagetian) approach to social development? Describe how a cognitive-developmentalist might explain attachment and gender-role development (provide examples). 

(3) Compare and contrast TWO of the following approaches to aggression: Instinct (Psychoanalytic and/or Ethological), Frustration-Aggression, Social-Learning, Social Information Processing.  How do these TWO approaches differ with respect to: a) the causes of aggression and b) what one would  have to do to reduce aggression?  Next, evaluate these theories.  Which is the better model of aggression and why (support your answer)?



Send problems, comments or suggestions to: Updated: January 15, 2009