Child Development 138 (03) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Spring, 2011 


Classic Theoretical Approaches

I. Psychoanalytic theory  

Position on developmental issues:



A. Freud

1. Internal (sexual) drives are impetus for development



2. innate tendency to reduce tension and achieve a pleasurable experience



3. importance of unconscious



4. Personality (Id, Ego, Superego)



5. Freud and development

        developmental (psychosexual) stages






        Oedipus (Electra) complex/socialization through identification





5.      Evaluation





B.  Erikson

1.  psychosocial stages, with greater emphasis on ego and on the increasing range of social settings of development throughout life



2. Development occurs through a series of challenges or crises

- trust vs. mistrust


- autonomy vs. shame


- initiative vs. guilt


- industry vs. inferiority  


- identity vs. identity diffusion


- intimacy vs. isolation


- generativity vs. self-absorption


- ego integrity vs. despair


3. Evaluation




II. Behaviorism and Learning Theory

A.  Traditional behaviorism




B. What constitutes learning?

1. Repetition (exposure) or association


2. Classical conditioning (Pavlov)




3. Operant conditioning (Skinner)


o       Reinforcers


o       Punishers


o       Positive reinforcement


o       Negative reinforcement



III.  Bandura - Social Learning Theory

  A.  Most behavior social in nature



B.  Broadened notion of learning  


1. observational learning (Bandura, 1967)





2.  cognition plays a role   



C. Reciprocal determinism




  D.  Evaluation





IV. Review Piaget  




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California State University, Sacramento
College of Education
Department of Child Development

Updated: January, 2011

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