Child Development 138 (03) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Spring, 2011 

 

Attachment and Child Care

Discussion: What is attachment? What behaviors indicate attachment?

 

 

 

I.  Theories of Attachment

A.  Psychoanalytic

1.      Freud

 

 

2.      Erikson

 

 

3.   Problems with this model

   

 

B. Behaviorist

1. Drive reduction model

 

 

  • Problems with this model

 

  • Harlow

   

 

 

2.  Operant conditioning model

 

 

 

  • Problems: 

 

C. Cognitive-developmental view

 

 

 

D. Ethological theory  

Bowlby/Ainsworth

1. development of attachment:

  • Preattachment phase (birth to 6 weeks) 

 

  • Attachment in the making (6 weeks to 6-8 months) 

 

  • Clear-cut attachment (6-8 months - 18-24 months)

 

  • Formation of reciprocal relationship (18 months on)

 

2. internal working model

 

 

 

II. Measuring the quality of attachment

A. Strange Situation 

 

 

 

1. Secure (65%) 

 

 

 

 

2. Insecure attachments:

Avoidant (20%) 

 

Resistant (10-15%) 

 

 

Disorganized (5-10%) 

 

B.  Alternative measures: 

1. Q-sort 

 

 

2. naturally-occurring separations 

 

 

3. narratives 

 

 

4. Adult Attachment Interview

 

 

 

III.  Research on Attachment

A. Consequences of deprivation - Spitz. 

 

 

 

 

B. Stability of attachment

 

 

 

 

C. What contributes to attachment?  

  • Temperament vs. Caregiving

1. Difficult temperament linked to insecure attachment  

 

 

 

2. Cultural variation 

 

 

 

3. Quality of  caregiving (DeWolf and van Ijzendoorm)

  • Sensitivity

  • Positive attitude

  • Synchrony

  • Mutuality

  • Support

  • Stimulation

 

4.  Maternal depression, family of origin effect

 

 

 

 

D. Fathers and attachment

 

 

 

 

 

E. Long-term effects of attachment

 

  • Attachment and Emotion Understanding - (Laible and Thompson)

 

 

 

 

 

  • Intergenerational effects  (Fonagy et al)

 

 

 

 

 

  •    Peer relations (Schneider et al.)

 

 

IV.  Child Care

A. Introduction (discussion)/Video

 

 

 

B. Progression of Child Care Research

1. Maternal employment (Is maternal employment harmful to children?)

 

 

2. Day care effects (Is nonparental care harmful?)

  • Peer skills, interaction

 

 

  • Attachment (Belsky, 1988)

 

 

 

  • Limitations of this research

 

3. Quality of care (Under what conditions is day care harmful?) 

  • What is "quality care"?

 

 

 

 

  • Effects of quality of care

 

 

 

4. Other factors (How does the day care environment interact with the home environment and child characteristics to affect children's  development?)

  • Child characteristics  

 

  • Family factors      

 

 

 

C. NICHD Study of Early Child Care
1. Recruitment, data collection

 

 

2.  Improvement over previous research

 

 

 

3. Some recent findings

 

 

 

 

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Send problems, comments or suggestions to: hembrees@csus.edu

California State University, Sacramento
College of Education
Department of Child Development

Updated: January, 2011

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