Child Development 138 (03) - Hembree
Social and Emotional Development
California State University, Sacramento
Spring, 2011 


Community and Schools

I. Community as Context

  A. Poverty/Research on Poverty

1. Poverty in the US and in California

  •  How is poverty determined?





  • Rates in US & California




  • Important trends in poverty






2. Effects of poverty on development






3. Mediating and moderating effects of parenting and family environments






4. Interventions




B. Neighborhood effects on development





C. Resilience

What predicts resilience in children??






II. Schools as Context

A.   Schools as socializing agent

1.    Bronfenbrenner



2.    Formal and informal curriculum



B.   School as a context (Influences)

1.    Cognition



2.    Early entry




3.    Research based instruction





C.   Factors of effective schools

1.    School climate



2.    Effective teachers


  • Authoritative teaching style




  • Pygmalion effect   Rosenthal & Jacobson (1969/1992)



3.    Goodness of fit  




4.    Classroom grouping

  • Cooperative learning


  • Inclusion


  • Ability tracking


D.   Additional challenges

1.    Ethnic minorities



2.    Parental involvement



3.    School Transitions




E.    Effective schools produce:





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Send problems, comments or suggestions to:

California State University, Sacramento
College of Education
Department of Child Development

Updated: January, 2011

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