Child Development 145 (01; 66-69) - Hembree
Controversial Issues in Child Development
Spring, 2012 


Exam Guide #2

The following represent terms and concepts you will need to know for the open-note/open-text exam scheduled for Wed, May 2nd.  For your reference, I have included the text of the discussion questions presented in class as these are useful with respect to studying for essay questions. You will need to bring a blue book for the exam. For additional general information about exam format, please see the Exam handout.  Revised 4/25/12.

1) Special Education/Bilingual Education

tension between views of common national identity and multiple cultural identities (& how plays out in education)

historical changes in bilingual education policies/laws in the US

arguments in support and critique of bilingual education

Duran et al. findings

historical context of special education and inclusion

provisions of Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)

legal rights of children with disabilities

issues around how to best serve all students

social justice and effectiveness arguments for inclusion (Lindsay, 2007)


See also Discussion Assignment #5 and the following additional in-class discussion questions

1) What changes do you think would need to happen in (a) laws (b) educational policy for there to be true equality for students of color and students with disabilities? What research-based advice would you want to give parents and educators about these issues?


2) video questions:

  • What are the various issues discussed in the video surrounding the practice of inclusion?

  • What arguments do the panelists make for inclusion? 

  • What are the different perspectives of:

  • (a) administrators

  • (b) teachers/providers

  • (c) parents

  • (d) persons with disabilities?

  • What is the next step? What is needed in future research? What changes would need to be made in the educational system to make effective inclusion possible?


2) Adolescent Risk behavior

Consequences of early adolescent sexual behavior (STD, pregnancy, psychological consequences)

Factors associated with risky sexual behavior

Family factors that are protective

Elements of Effective prevention programs for risky sexual behavior/pregnancy prevention

aggression/types of aggression

Bullying/types of bullying  

youth violence

societal/community consequences for bullying and violence

 individual Consequences for bullies and victims

environmental, social, developmental, individual predictors of aggression, bullying, and violence

School-based program effectiveness (Bowllan, 2011)

arguments for family based programs (Reese et al.)


See also the following in-class discussion questions:

1) What role can or should the school or community play in reducing risky sexual behavior? Should schools be held responsible for reducing sexual behavior in adolescents?

2) How can the Jones and Bersamin studies inform prevention programs for adolescents?

3)Youth violence is clearly a problem in the US. Who is responsible for the harm that youth violence causes? Who is responsible for prevention and intervention?

4)What do Reese et al. recommend as important components for family/community-based intervention programs?

5)Why do you think that prevention and intervention programs have remained in the schools, despite the research indicating that more comprehensive programs may be more effective?



3) Cultural diversity

Race, Ethnicity, and Culture as constructs

limits of racial categories used in census

Culture as a context vs. Culture as difference

socialization vs. systems models of culture effects

developmental niche

developmental Models of Identity formation (Erikson, Marcia)

identity status (diffused, moratorium, achieved, forclosed)

 ethnic identity

research on Ethnic Identity (Ohinney - ethnic identity and positive group attitudes)

how is ethnic identity promoted

Results and implications of Britto and Amer (2008)

Cultural differences in parenting and link to immigrant statusBarry et al. (2009)

acculturation, discrimination, and prejudice

Effective programs promoting equity in children

arguments for, implementation of social justice in the schools (Murray, 2010)


See also Discussion Assignment #6  and the following in-class discussion questions:

1) If achieved ethnic identity is considered positive for group relations, how can ethnic identity be


2) Consider some situations in the school context that reveal “invisible biases” (Murray). What can be done to eliminate these biases?



4) Child Abuse and the Legal System (see ppts for this lecture)

Definitions and prevalence

Effects of Child Abuse

Physical/Health problems

Psychological & Behavioral problems

Societal costs (direct and indirect)

Risk factors for Abuse ( Parental characteristics,  Child characteristics,  family, neighborhood factors)

Factors affecting outcome severity of effects of abuse

factors that predict resilience

Research on effective prevention & intervention

what is missing in many prevention programs

Parent cognitions

Need to consider social environment/neighborhood 

foster care as treatment

problems with foster care

lack of developmental focus (Zeanah et al.)

mandated reporting (why, how, who)

prosecution of offenders

presumption of family preservation

termination of parental rights

limits of children’s eyewitness testimony & forensic interviews (Goodman)

Outcomes for former foster children

SRCD policy report/recommendations


See also Discussion Assignment #7 and the following in-class discussion questions:

1)   1) What are your thoughts about the issue of family preservation and termination of parental rights? Under what conditions should the rights of parents be terminated?

2) What difficulties and ethical issues do you think arise with the report of child abuse? Why might someone not want to report suspected abuse?

3) Make an argument for the need for prevention of child abuse, rather than the intervention and treatment.

4) Given the problems associated with foster care, what sorts of alternatives can you think of to keep children safe?  What additional services and resources are needed to make foster care a more effective and safe option?


5) Child Poverty

SES  and consequences of low SES

US definitions and standards

benefits and problems with US (absolute) measure

relative and absolute measures of poverty

poverty as social exclusion

trends in poverty

unequal distribution of quality

consequences of poverty for children

effects of poverty on parenting and home environment (parents, home as mediator)

Factors associated with increased/decreased risk (e.g., intensity, length, timing)

social selection, social causation models for poverty and how translate to different interventions

Greater concentrations of poverty in neighborhoods contributes to poverty effects

examples of federal programs to combat poverty


See Discussion Assignment #8  and the following in-class discussion questions

  1. What do you think of relative vs. absolute measures of poverty? What benefits might there be to conceptualizing poverty in a relative sense and more broadly as social exclusion? What problems are there with a relative measure?

  2. Poverty is clearly a problem in the US with grave consequences for children and society. Given what you know, just what would have to be done (a) legally, (b) in terms of social policy in order to combat the problem? What would be some “first steps” to dealing with the problem?



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Send problems, comments or suggestions to:

California State University, Sacramento
College of Education
Department of Child Development

Updated: January, 2012

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