CHDV/FACS 154 (03)
Issues in Parenting - Fall, 2012


Parenting Infants and Toddlers


I. Infant/toddler development and parenting

A. Physical Development

1) Newborns  





2) Brain Development

  • Synaptogenesis



  • synaptic pruning



  • Increased myelination



3) Motor skills




  • Locomotion




4) Parenting issues related to physical development




B.  Intellectual development





  • Parenting issues related to intellectual development





C.  Emotional Development

1) Emotional expression/regulation




2) Temperament


 a) Thomas and Chess - easy, difficult, slow-to-warm-up




b) important dimensions of temperament


  • surgency (high activity, high intensity pleasure),


  • effortful control (focus, sustained attention),


  • negative emotionality


  • differential susceptibility


3) Parenting issues related to emotional development





D. Social Development

1) Attachment

  • Secure Attachment (Bowlby)



  • Promoting secure attachment (Caregiving quality)





  • multiple attachments



2) Self control


  • Voluntary control/compliance in the second year of life.




3) Parenting issues related to social development





II. Special Concerns for Parents of Infants and Toddlers

A. Crying and Sleeping







B. Promoting Self-regulation






C. Safety







D. Establishing rules and routines (“structuring”)





III. Challenges for Parents of Young Children

A.   Depression/mental illness






B. Substance abuse






C. Prematurity/Health 






D. Day Care







Send problems, comments or suggestions to:

California State University, Sacramento

College of Education

Department of Child Development

Updated: January 20, 2012

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