CHDV/FACS 154 (03)
Issues in Parenting - Fall, 2012


Determinants of Parenting

I.  Introduction:


A. Multiple determinants of parenting, including:

1. cultural/social factors








2. individual factors









3. interpersonal factors








4. setting






B. Models of Parenting

1. Belsky Parenting Model (Review)

  • Child Characteristics, Parent Characteristics, Support












2. Family Systems Model






  • A systems approach to families means...












3. Bioecological Systems model of parenting (Bronfenbrenner)













II. Cultural/societal determinants

A. Culture as determinant of parenting


1. culture =










2. Culture as medium (context) vs. culture as difference











  • limits of cross-cultural research









B. Socioeconomic Status and parenting


1. Research findings












2. Adaptive differences?










C. Religion as a contributor to parenting
















III. Individual characteristics

A. parental characteristics that influence parenting

1. age







2. gender








3. social cognition









4. experience










5. personality











6. transient characteristics








B. child characteristics that influence parenting

1. gender









2.  age








3.  temperament









4.  transient characteristics








IV. Contextual and Support factors


A. Family structure and characteristics










B. Neighborhood and community












C. Employment and work

1. Increased need for care








2. Changes in division of labor










3. Effects of work "spillover"









D. Sources of stress for parents


1. Major life events










2. everyday events












3. Demands of parenting (parenting stress)









E. Sources of social support


1. institutional










2. relational











3. instrumental







Send problems, comments or suggestions to:

California State University, Sacramento

College of Education

Department of Child Development

Updated: January 20, 2012

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