CHDV/FACS 154 (03)
Issues in Parenting - Fall, 2012


Study Guide Exam #2

Check out the exam handout for general information about exams. Please bring a (clean) blue book and pen or pencil to the exam. No scantron form is needed.  REVISED 10/24/12 (see changes below)




Transition to Parenting (Ch. 6)

Model of Parenting Development through adolescence (Galinsky - image-making, nurturing, etc.)

unintended vs. unwanted parenting

characteristics of married and unmarried parents

changes associated with becoming a parent (financial, social, emotional)

teratogens - cigarettes, alcohol, (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) legal/illegal drugs - and factors that influence these effects (e.g., timing)

genetic defects

dominant, recessive patterns of inheritance

stages of childbirth

variability in use of drugs and methods of delivery


prematurity and low birth weight

effects of stress on prenatal development

APGAR assessment of newborn

Factors affecting the transition to parenting (and child development): age of parent, income/resources, gender of parent, communication skills/attitude, relationship quality, support

recommendations for parents to ease transition

benefits of breastfeeding

postpartum depression

infant mortality rates and what needs to be done to reduce them in US

Discussion (#2) on ART


Parenting Infants and toddlers (Ch. 7)

Infant development and how related to parenting:

   - physical milestones/growth

   - brain development - synaptogenesis and myelination

  -  intellectual milestones

   - Emotional expression/regulation and ways to promote

  - Temperament examples of temperament characteristics

   - easy, difficult, slow-to-warm up profiles and goodness of fit

  - surgency, negative emotionality, effortful control

  - differential susceptibility hypothesis

  - Attachment and how to promote secure attachment (characteristics of sensitive interactions)

  - self  recognition

How physical, social, intellectual development in infancy/toddlerhood influences parenting

Concerns of parents of infants: crying and sleeping, promoting self-control, establishing rules and routines (structuring), safety

 Challenges for parents of young children

  -  depression/mental illness and how affects parenting

  -  substance abuse

  -  parenting difficulties with premature infants

  -  links between these factors


Parenting Preschool-aged Children (Ch. 7)

Development in early childhood and how related to parenting:

  - physical development milestones

  - cognitive changes (e.g., symbolic thought)

  - changes in language skill

  - changes in emotion understanding (basic emotions)

  - changes in parent-child relationships (e.g., language makes more reciprocal)

  - self control (delay of gratification/resistance to temptation and ways parents promote these skills)

  - gender development (identity, understanding of gender, stereotypes)

  - peer relationships and changes in social interactions

  - prosocial behavior

How physical, social, intellectual development in early childhood influences parenting

Concerns of parents of preschoolers: 

  -  tantrums and techniques for dealing with them

  - handling aggression & Social withdrawal

Discussion (#3) on physical punishment (see also Ch. 5)


Parenting School-aged Children (Ch 8)

Development in middle childhood and how related to parenting:

  - cognitive achievements in middle childhood (e.g. logical thought, ability to self-monitor, plan, selective attention)

  - effects of schooling on development influences on school success

  - changes in language development (e.g. non-literal speech)

  - changes in emotion understanding (e.g.., social emotions, multiple/conflicting emotions)

  - changes in parent-child relationships (less time with parents, more reciprocal/give-and-take)

  - development of self-concept and self-esteem

  - changes in moral development (e.g., reasoning about fairness, ability to follow rules, more responsible, moral emotions)

  - peer relationships and friendships

  - peer rejection and how parents can help

How physical, social, intellectual development in middle childhood influences parenting

Concerns of parents of school-aged children:

  - promoting positive relationships (ways parents affect peer relationships, effects of peer rejection/bullying and how parents can help; sibling rivalry and conflict)

   - adjustment to school and promoting academic achievement (mastery orientation, learning goals + parental beliefs, ways parents influence school success),

   - promoting positive moral choices and empathy (induction; response to more serious moral transgression)

reasoning and mutual problem solving as disciplinary tools

induction vs. power assertion

parent regulation to co-regulation to self-regulation


Parenting Adolescents (Ch. 9) 

Development in adolescence and how related to parenting:

   - physical/pubertal changes/health (consequences of early maturation, brain maturation)

   - sexual  behavior (age at 1st intercourse, risky behavior)

   - cognitive achievements (e.g., abstract, systematic thought)

   - schooling (e.g., transition to secondary school)

   - changes in parent-adolescent relationship (e.g., monitoring, conflict, etc.)

   - changes in sibling relationships (e.g., more positive)

   - identity development (diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, achieved/ethnic identity/gender identity/sexual orientation)

   - peer relationships (cliques, crowds)

   - dating (characteristics of these relationships)

 Baumrind - parenting style in parents of adolescents (authoritative, democratic, etc.)

optimal parenting for parents of adolescents

emerging adulthood (Arnett)

How physical, social, intellectual development in adolescence influences parenting

Concerns of parents of adolescents:

  - ways of promoting positive peer relationships

  - ways to promote academic achievement (handling school problems, ways to develop abilities),

  - promoting healthy behavior/choices 

importance of monitoring in adolescence

adolescent parents (video)/risk and protective factors for children of adolescent mothers +

Discussion (#5) on teen pregnancy (what parents can do to prevent teen pregancy)


One of the following essays will be on the exam:

1) Trace the development of cognitive skills from infancy through middle childhood. What major changes take place and how do these changes affect parenting practice? Provide 3 specific examples of parenting practices associated with these cognitive developmental changes.

2) Trace the development of peer relationships from early childhood through adolescence. What major changes take place and how do these changes affect parenting practice? Provide 3 specific examples of parenting practices associated with promoting positive peer relationships.

3) Choose ONE developmental period discussed in class (infancy, preschool, school-aged, or adolescence) and discuss three concerns that parents might have during this period. According to the text and lecture, what advice can be offered to parents with these concerns?




Send problems, comments or suggestions to:

California State University, Sacramento

College of Education

Department of Child Development

Updated: January 20, 2012

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