CHDV/FACS 154 (03)
Issues in Parenting - Fall, 2012


Study Guide Exam #3

Check out the exam handout for general information about exams. Please bring a (clean) blue book and pen or pencil to the exam. No scantron form is needed.  Revised 12/6/12





Determinants of parenting (Ch. 5)

Belsky Parenting Model (Review)

Family Systems Model -  features of systems approach to families

definition of culture

the limits of cross-cultural research

how religion contributes to parenting

SES - SES as parenting determinant

parental characteristics that influence parenting - stable (age. gender, social cognition, experience, personality) and transient

child characteristics that influence parenting - stable (gender, age, temperament) and transient

contextual factors

Family structure and characteristics as determinants

Neighborhood and community as determinants

changes in parenting associated with work


sources of stress - everyday stress and major life events, parenting stress

sources of support (institutional, relational, instrumental.


Parenting in Diverse Family Structures (Ch. 8 (pp. 196-200), Ch 10; Supplementary Reading #3)

characteristics of single parent (mother) families and consequences for parenting and children’s adjustment

importance of father figures in single parent families (Coley study) 

divorce as process - possible changes for children

consequences of divorce for children

effects of marital conflict on children (Cummings lab study on exposure to unresolved anger/conflict)

factors that lessen the effects of divorce

father (and non-custodial) involvement post divorce

effects of remarriage

special difficulties experienced by step-parents

tasks/challenges of step families

Adoptive families (motivation/who adopts?)

trends in US adoption

differences between adoptive parents and biological parents

challenges for Adoptive families

challenges for children in Lesbian/Gay families

research findings concerning child adjustment in Lesbian/Gay families

Discussion #6 (main findings of study and implications for families and future research)

reasons for choosing to be foster parent

special challenges experienced by foster parents

factors associated with effective foster parenting

effects of foster placement/outcomes for children.

importance of process rather than structure in predicting child outcomes in all families


Culture SES and parenting (Ch. 11)


Definition of culture

Family & parents as transmitters of culture

Cultural models of parenting (independence/interdependence model; systems)

Race, (limited) racial influences on parenting

Ethnicity as influence on parenting (ethnic differences in parenting behavior and values and limitations of these studies)

Similarities in families across ethnic groups

Religion and religiosity as cultural influence

The importance of cultural values in predicting parental practice

culture as difference vs. culture as medium/context

Socio-economic status (SES) and parenting (differences in parenting and child outcomes related to social class)

trends in Poverty (e.g., not equally distributed across ethnic groups and regions of the country, higher rates for children) 

effects of poverty on children’s development

Role of family and parenting as transmitters of poverty effects

Ways to ameliorate the effects of poverty



Parenting and Work/Child care (Ch. 5 (pp. 113- 116); NICHD Report)

domains of work/family 

Types of families (high status, low stress, main-secondary)

work and parenting family types: equal-sharers, 60-40 couples, 75-25 couples, alternating shifters (and differences between these families)

Work-home and Home-work spillover (positive and negative)

work-family strategies (e.g., placing limits)

divergences in men and women’s perceptions of work experiences/stress

divergences in parent and child perceptions of parental work

basic needs of children (Galinsky)

effective parenting in the context of work and family (e.g., monitoring)

Intentional parenting

types of care

factors to consider in examining effects of care

importance of quality of care/ what constitutes day care quality

process vs. structure quality variables in child care

limitations of previous research on child care

impact of nonparental care (findings of NICHD study on quality and quantity of care)


Child Maltreatment (Ch. 12)

definitions of child maltreatment types: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological maltreatment.

effects of  various forms of maltreatment on children

stress and effects on the brain & development

risk factors for abuse/neglect (child, family, neighborhood/society) - see Table 12.1

effective intervention and prevention strategies for child abuse (discussion)




One of the following essays will be on the exam.

1. Describe two of the diverse family structures discussed in the course – divorce/blended, Lesbian/Gay, adoptive, single-parent, or foster parent families. Discuss what research says about the special challenges inherent in such families and what parents can do to meet those challenges.

2. Discuss some of the issues related to balancing work and family - specifically, the challenges of managing work/family and the use of non-parental care for young children. What are some strategies that parents engage in to effectively balance work and meeting children's basic needs. What factors should be considered in obtaining high quality care for children (from NICHD report)?



Send problems, comments or suggestions to:

California State University, Sacramento

College of Education

Department of Child Development

Updated: January 20, 2012

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