Geology 127 (Hydrogeology)


California State University, Sacramento


Week 8: Specific discharge, average linear flow velocity, equations of flow (confined and unconfined aquifers), laminar and turbulent flow, steady state flow in confined and unconfined aquifers; refraction of flow, flow nets


Upon completion of this unit students should be able to:

  • Distinguish between specific discharge, average linear flow velocity, Darcy flux and Darcy velocity.

  • Discuss the assumptions and variables with each ground water velocity solution method.

  • Calculate the discharge per unit width for an aquifer.

  • Use equations for confined and unconfined aquifers to estimate hydraulic head at a known distance between two monitoring points.

  • Predict how groundwater will flow as it cross between media with different hydraulic conductivity

  • Read, interpret and construct a flow net

  • Make simple calculations using a flow net


Reading Assignments:

Lecture 11: Equations of groundwater flow- Fetter, pp. 122-132; 138-146

Lecture 12: Flow nets and flow refraction- Fetter, pp. 132-137 and handout


Lecture notes:

Lecture 11

Lecture 12


Homework assignments:

Homework:  TBA


Due date: TBA


Grading: 100 points, with partial credit for incomplete problems that show work.