Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
What are attitudes?
- Attitudes are evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
Cognitive component of an attitude is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude.
Affective component is the emotion or feeling segment of an attitude.
Behavioral component of an attitude is an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory -
- any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Our desire to reduce dissonance depends upon:
· Importance of elements creating dissonance
· Degree of individual influence over elements
· Rewards involved in dissonance
Note: People seek consistency among their attitudes and seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and behavior so they appear to be rational and consistent.
Measuring the A-B relationship
Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.
Moderating Variables include:
· Importance of the attitude
· Specificity of the attitude
· Accessibility of the attitude
· Social pressures on the individual
· Direct experience with the attitude
Self-perception theory = when you use attitudes after the fact to make sense out of an action that has ALREADY occurred.
Types of Attitudes
1) Job Satisfaction
A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds towards his or her job.
2) Job Involvement
Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.
3) Organizational Commitment
Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization
Affective, normative, and continuance commitment Note: what are these? Why are they different? Please be sure you know J
4) Perceived Organizational Support
Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being.
5) Employee Engagement
An individuals involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization.
An Application: Attitude surveys
- A way to capture attitude data via questionnaires about various workplace factors (job, work groups, supervisors and the organization)
Attitudes and Diversity
- A growing field of study and important in all organizations today. Understanding and changing attitudes about others is important for managers and organizations. Most companies are now training employees re: attitudes about diversity.
- Training activities: Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions
- Volunteer work in community and social service centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds
How can we measure it?
Single global rating
· So ..how satisfied are people in their jobs?
· Which facets seem to be causing dissatisfaction?
How Can Employee Express Dissatisfaction?
Exit Behavior directed towards leaving the organization
Neglect Allowing conditions to worsen
Voice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions
Loyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improve
(Also note that job satisfaction relates to OCB (going above and beyond what is required formally) through fairness. Trust is also important)
Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance
Satisfaction and Productivity
o Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied!
o Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.
Satisfaction and Absenteeism
Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.
Satisfaction and Turnover
Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
Satisfaction and OCB
Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
Satisfied workers provide better customer service.
Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because:
They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.
They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships.
They are experienced.
Note: Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.