One World Initiative

April 21st Student Symposium on Migration

Student Symposium on Migration. Redwood Room, 11a.m. to 12:50 p.m.

Join us as Sacramento State students showcase their perspectives on migration through presentation of papers, posters, and exhibits. 

SCHEDULE OF PRESENTATIONS (see below for abstracts)

Presentations 11:00 - 11:45: 

  • I am a Refugeee. Jessica Leahy (International Relations)
  • Fashion Brand Migration. Alina Maria Musgrave (Fashion Merchandising and Desing)
  • Man Enough: Eating and Somatoform Disorders in Competitive Male Athletes and the Development of Masculine Body Image. John Ramos (Dietetics)

Presentations 11:00 - 11:45: 

  • Fukushima Japan Refugees. Mostafa Aniss (Communications) & Anthony Paradiso (Environmental Studies)
  • A Habitat Comparison for Swainson's Hawk Migration. Alex Gwerder (Environmental Studies)

Posters/Exhibits  

  • How Natural Disasters Have Led to Environmental Refugees in Uganda. Diana Ambriz (Psychology) & Christina Moya (Electrical Engineering)Refugees of Syria. Catherine Aguilar (Civil Engineering) & Diana Djalili (Environmental Studies)

  • Refugees of Syria. Catherine Aguilar (Civil Engineering) & Diana Djalili (Environmental Studies)
  • Tiger Shark Migration Patterns and Attacks in Hawaii. Andrew Azevedo (Mechanical Engineering)
  • Morphometric Variation in Adult California Steelhead (oncorhynchus mykiss) Between Four Distinct Population Segments. Farhat Bajjaliya (Biological Sciences)
  • A Family Systems Approach for Working with the Aging Population in Residential Care. Jessica Beck (Family & Consumer Sciences: Family Studies)
  • Sinking of Tuvalu. Brian Blunt (Economics)
  • The Health of the Azraq Wetlands Reserve and its Connection to the Migration of People and Animals. Amber Dewey (Environmental Studies)
  • Emotion Reflexivity of Migration as Expressed in the Garden of Eden Collection. Madelynn Esquivias (Fashion Merchandising & Design/International Business)
  • Using Rice Fields as Habitat for Migratory Chinook Salmon. Charles Fitzsimmons (Environmental Studies) & Eric Griffin (Engineering)
  • How Natural Disasters Lead to Displacement of Environmental Refugees. Kelly Heal (Environmental Studies) & and Landon Lee (Graphic Design)
  • Carteret Islanders, the Tuluun: Sea Level Rise & Environmental Refugees. Sara Heynen (Environmental Studies) and Sierra Harris (Biological Sciences)
  • The Migration of the Chytrid Fungus. Yekaterina Karpenko & Natalie Flores (Biological Sciences)
  • Metamorphism. Chou Khang (Fashion Merchandising & Design)
  • Lack of Diversity in the Fashion Industry. Amelia Meyers, Jonique Fields, Emily Jones, Mercedes Bens, & Danielle Miller (Family & Consumer Sciences)
  • Solar Cookers: Cost Effective and Environmentally Friendly Tools for African Refugees. Chris Newell (Environmental Sciences), Jacob Leatherby (Economics), Jacob Schmitz (Environmental Studies/Business Administration), & Ezekiel Villacampa (Environmental Studies)
  • Aral Sea Desertification. Paul Riling (Forensic Biology) and Ruben Valenzuela (Environmental Studies)
  • Fashion from the Streets to the Elite. Marley Shimamura (Fashion Merchandising & Design)
  • Environmental Refugees – Defining the Concept. Cynthia Smith (Accounting)
  • Conservation of Migratory Birds and Wetlands on Staten Island, CA: Ramsar Potential? Ethan Valburg (Environmental Studies), Alex Bila (Kinesiology), & Nicholas Meyer (Environmental Studies)
  • Microsatellite Marker Analysis of Population Structure in Convict Chichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). Alison Wagner, Caitlin Brady, and Courtney Miller (Biology)
  • Migratory Birds and the Disappearing Food Source at the Salton Sea. Shannon Waters (Biology: Ecology, Evolution & Conservation)
  • International Perspectives on Migration. Students from the English Language Institute

ABSTRACTS (Alphabetical by First Author)

Refugees of Syria. Catherine Aguilar (Civil Engineering) & Diana Djalili (Environmental Studies)

Millions of people are considered refugees due to internal power struggles and war in their countries. In Syria, the civil war in 2011 has caused the number of refugees to pass 6 million. The refugees have been forced to flee their homes and move to other parts of their country and to neighboring countries, such as Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan. Our poster will focus on how the lack of resources within Syria and the neighboring countries has made it difficult for the refugee camps to sustain the growing populations. Food, shelter, education, and health care are inadequate. Water shortages are of special concern. Although there are humanitarian efforts in place to help the refugees, it is an ongoing battle.

How Natural Disasters Have Led to Environmental Refugees in Uganda. Diana Ambriz (Psychology) and Christina Moya (Electrical Engineering)

Uganda has been home to intense government conflict for several years now, however this is not the only factor affecting the wellbeing of its people. Many natural disasters have led the Ugandan citizens to embark on a journey in search of a better lifestyle. Uganda is beginning to show signs of climate change by hosting unreliable rainfall. This creates droughts and floods which are considered to be the number one natural disaster of its vast population. Earthquakes and landslides also play a big role in affecting the large communities in Uganda. Economic damages caused by these disasters can reach very high levels. These levels can be so high that for many citizens facing this battle it is easier to migrate to a new community rather than repairing what they once considered home.

Fukushima Japan Refugees. Mostafa Aniss (Communications) & Anthony Paradiso (Environmental Studies)

Our one world presentation is primarily concerned with the 9.0 earthquake on the pacific ring of fire, which created a tsunami that hit Japans nuclear power plant (Fukushima Daiichi).  The tsunami knocked out the water that kept the plant under control and as a result, nuclear active materials disseminated a total distance of 12 miles around the nuclear plant. This 12 mile radius around the plant has been delegated as a “no-go zone”. According to recent readings by a Geiger counter, which is a tool used to measure the level of radiation in any given area, the “no-go zone” had areas no lower than 10 microsieverts and other areas that peaked at 30.8 microsieverts. This news is truly baffling when one considers that any vicinity with 3 microsieverts is already considered unsafe. The result of this disaster is that there are over 300,000 refugees living in a camp filled with several 30 square meter rooms in Koriyama, Japan. The refugees have been promised by their central government that their homes will be rebuilt bigger than before and no action has been taken yet to fulfill this promise.  The closest that these refugees have come to having this promised fulfilled is that they were just recently allowed to go back and visit the place where they used to live, as long as it wasn’t near the no-go zone.  

Tiger Shark Migration Patterns and Attacks in Hawaii. Andrew Azevedo (Mechanical Engineering)

This project would analyze the migration patterns of tiger sharks and how this is related to increased shark attacks on humans.  Every year there appears to be an apparent rise in tiger shark attacks in Hawaii during the late summer and fall, and there is new research that suggests that migration patterns play a majority role in this.  It is crucial that these migration patterns are researched further so that they can be more understood.  With this information, it will be possible to inform the public better on when they can expect to see sharks in the water, helping to reduce the number of shark attacks.

Morphometric Variation in Adult California Steelhead (oncorhynchus mykiss) Between Four Distinct Population Segments. Farhat Bajjaliya (Biological Sciences)

Evolutionary constraints within the immediate environment, reproductive homing, and geographic isolation all play part in shaping and maintaining heritable life history traits within locally adapted populations of steelhead.

Because of limited genetic interchange, it is reasonable to believe that physiological characteristics, such as body morphology, should be expected to vary between federally delineated Distinct Population Segments.

The objective of this study was to compare adult steelhead morphometrics between four Distinct Population Segments including: Central Valley, Klamath Mountains Provence, Northern California, and Central California Coast.

Several factors are believed to affect steelhead morphometrics, but three key factors were chosen for analysis. These factors include: Distinct Population Segment, sex (male/female), and origin (hatchery/natural). Morphometric response variables chosen for analysis include: body depth, fork length, and weight.

A Family Systems Approach for Working with the Aging Population in Residential Care. Jessica Beck (Family & Consumer Sciences: Family Studies)

This poster will describe the benefits of applying a Family Systems Theory when working with the aging population in a local residential care facility. The information shared in the poster session comes as a result of reflective practice through weekly journaling during an undergraduate internship. Reflective practice as part of the journaling process was a central aspect of the fieldwork experience. Grounding the fieldwork experience in a strong theoretical foundation, in this case, Family Systems Theory, was also an essential component of the fieldwork.

The purpose of this poster presentation will be to demonstrate the benefit of drawing upon Family Systems Theory during the planning and implementation of family-centered practices, particularly the practices employed when assisting those moving into and living within the environment of residential care. The poster will spotlight the themes discovered in the field experience which included both one-on-one support to aging individuals as well as the implementation of a family-based support group. Through the practice of weekly reflective journaling, I was able to chronicle the process by which my fieldwork supported and enhanced my knowledge and skills in working with this population and the transition they experienced moving into and living within the facility.

The theme, global perspectives on migration, is defined in this poster as the relocation of individuals from their previous living situation into the residential care facility. The journey of transitioning into this new environment begins based on a change in either level of care or specific need that was experienced by the individual. Often times when a person has to move the resettlement means leaving behind family, friends, a home, church and in certain circumstances the town or community they previously lived in. This poster will highlight the central role of family-centered care in supporting the individual’s transition into assisted living and the ways in which this transition impacts the family structure and the dynamics of family functioning, such as role reversals, transformations in regards to power, altered boundaries, understanding of diagnosis’ and the impact of support systems or the lack thereof.

Sinking of Tuvalu. Brian Blunt (Economics)

My poster that I put together is about the people in the island nation of Tuvalu. This is a small island that lies in the West of Australia amongst the several islands out there. Tuvalu has a problem with the rising sea level as it sees its prosperous island sinking. With more than half of the island almost completely under water, the people of Tuvalu are forced to relocate and leave their cultural land. The island of Tuvalu has much to offer and to see it falling deeper into the ocean due to the output of our own ways is saddening. If there isn’t any change in the way society currently uses their energy and products with the amount of contaminants being released and raising the water level, then it is just a matter of time before Tuvalu is completely disappeared.

The Health of the Azraq Wetlands Reserve and its Connection to the Migration of People and Animals. Amber Dewey (Environmental Studies)

I will be using a California Rapid Assessment Method worksheet, performed by Dr. Stevens, to assess the health of the South Azraq Wetland and it's connection to the migratory patterns of animals, bird, and people.  I will have a poster board to display the CRAM scores with pictures from Dr. Stevens trip to the site.  I will also discuss the Azraq wetlands connection with HIMA Mesopotamia.

Emotion Reflexivity of Migration as Expressed in the Garden of Eden Collection. Madelynn Esquivias (Fashion Merchandising & Design/International Business)

Since the beginning of my youth I have traveled. The desire to travel and discover more of the world than what my immediate surroundings have to offer has become second nature. My family, due to the ambitions and successes of my parents, has migrated from country to country, from state to state, from home to home, and from school to school.  Migrating has contributed to love of unique and constant enlightenment. Frequent moves and travels exposed my family and me to various cultures, languages, beliefs, individuals, and environments.  I have discovered a deep emotional connection with these environments, most influential are the flowers that each of these environments possess. I have found inspiration in these flowers and have shaped garments to express and reflect not only the physical place I lived in, but also the emotional state during my time there. In other words, I have used my emotions and experiences as a form of reflexivity in producing these garments connecting them to my own migration.

Using Rice Fields as Habitat for Migratory Chinook Salmon. Charles Fitzsimmons (Environmental Studies) & Eric Griffin (Engineering)

The project focuses on how flooded rice fields could serve as substitutes to dwindling wetlands as migratory habitat to aid the recovery of Chinook Salmon populations. This experiment was done by the Center for Water Shed Sciences at UC Davis with the California Department of Water Resources and showed significant results. Scientists studied the Chinook Salmon in the rice field and compared to those in the wild in regards to overall body sizes. The results showed that the rice patties provided a more suitable habitat for the fish and showed to have larger body sizes than those in the wild. A salmon that is larger in size has a higher survival rate in the wild and thus will aid population growth rates. This research could provide a possible method of creating resiliency within the population, which has been severely reduced due to overfishing.​

A Habitat Comparison for Swainson’s Hawk Mitigation. Alex Gwerder (Environmental Studies)

Ecological restoration replaces or enhances habitat for the benefit of the local environment, and usually provides augmentations to the habitat for specific species. Mitigation banks exist to offset the destruction of habitat or other environmental degradation. Mitigation measures are a form of environmental currency, where an acre of habitat beneficial to an endangered species, can be equal to a certain amount of environmental credit. In California, both native grassland and alfalfa count towards Buteo swainsoni (Swainson’s hawk) environmental credit. Buteo swainsoni are migratory raptors that feed on insects and rodents. Grassland and alfalfa habitats provide seed for rodents, which eventually are preyed upon by hawks. For this paper, it will be assumed that Buteo swainsoni chooses successful nesting sites based on available food sources, and therefore a comparison can be made between native grassland habitats and farmed alfalfa fields.

This paper will analyze the differences between native grassland and alfalfa as habitat for Buteo swainsoni success. The study will be based upon nesting site locations and total population. Additionally, the two habitats will be compared to understand which deserves more environmental credit for Buteo swainsoni mitigation, which habitat serves to better inform the stakeholder who invests in mitigation banking, and which habitat is more suited for California’s Mediterranean climate. The goals of this paper are to distinguish which habitat is most beneficial through carnivore ecosystem regulation, and to motivate those who purchase and create mitigation banks to invest in the most beneficial habitat.

How Natural Disasters Lead to Displacement of Environmental Refugees. Kelly Heal (Environmental Studies) & and Landon Lee (Graphic Design)

Environmental refugees are people who are forced to relocate from their homeland to another area due to changes – such as climate change – that have drastically altered conditions at home.  Millions of people are displaced every year, however if we’re not directly affected by this displacement, we tend to turn the blind eye to the issue. Currently, it seems that many Americans know little-to-nothing about environmental refugees, and our group aims to change that.  For our project, we have decided to create an “information graphic”(referred to as an “infographic”) describing how natural disasters lead to the displacement of environmental refugees. One of the most devastating natural disasters that tremendously affects and creates environmental refugees is drought. The need for water is important for any society, and throughout the Middle East water is more important now than ever before. Societies depend on ground water for every aspect of their lives and Landon and I are aiming though our infograpic to educate the public on the shocking statistics of water scarcity throughout the Middle East.  We will also be providing statistics for how preparedness can improve readiness for such disasters, along with information about how such disasters – and resulting displacement – can lead to over-population of neighboring countries and competition for resources.  Being prepared for the effects of climate change will only benefit every society, and having a plan of attack when events occur that creates environmental refugees is important so chaos does not happen in the wake of a devastating event. Another area of displacement that we would like to explore with our infographic poster is the different types of environmental disasters that tend to displace environmental refugees (hurricanes, tsunamis, etc.). Hurricanes and tsunamis have devastated shorelines in many countries such as Japan, Thailand, as well as right here in the United States. Hurricane Sandy affected many counties and created havoc in the United States. Many people became environmental refugees in about a week. Informing the general public on the statistics of these startling events is important for people to know in the event that one day they too can be an environmental refugee. We feel that utilizing the design and format of an infographic will lend itself well to the informative statistics that we intend to provide to help viewers truly comprehend the severity of the impacts that the environment has, not only on refugees, but to the rest of the world as well. An infographic will be easy for people to understand and should stand out better than just a simple poster board. Creating an infographic will set us apart, and give us a level of sophistication that viewers will overall be very impressed with from students at Sacramento State University.  This should be a fun, yet imformative project for the One World committee. Landon and I look forward to creating an infograpic that will overall be very impressive, as well as informational about all the statistics that people should be aware of when it comes to environmental refugees.

Carteret Islanders, the Tuluun: Sea Level Rise & Environmental Refugees. Sara Heynen (Environmental Studies) and Sierra Harris (Biological Sciences)

For the One World Initiative Symposium my classmate Sierra Harris and I will create a poster on the Carteret Islands located Papua New Guinea and the Tuluun people who live on them. The Carteret Islands is one of the first places on earth to be affected by sea level rise. Though these islands are low-level atolls, the rise in sea level has caused massive flooding and made the islands become progressively inhabitable. The Tuluun people have been forced to evacuate the island and relocated to a nearby island called Bougainville. Under these circumstances, the Tuluun people have become environmental refugees. In our poster we will describe the Carteret islands and the daily life of the Tuluun in their native land. We will then go into the effect of sea level rise on the island and the impact on the Tuluun people. Lastly the poster will describe the island Bougainville and the changes the Tuluun faced when migrating under forced circumstances. The Tuluun people are the first environmental refugees impacted by sea level rise. Mandatory evacuation will result in a negative impact on the environment, resources, and culture on Bougainville island.

The Migration of the Chytrid Fungus. Yekaterina Karpenko & Natalie Flores (Biological Sciences)

The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, termed the “amphibian plague” has been devastating amphibian populations worldwide, going as far as to be considered the cause for the extinction of a number of species. With the compounding amount of stressors faced by amphibians in our rapidly changing environment as it is, understanding and containing the devastation caused by this lethal fungus is becoming crucial. The rapid propagation and spread of the fungus is not fully understood but the chytrid fungus appears in collected specimen in the early 1900’s, in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Because of the high global mobility of this frog in the trade industry, it is believed that X. laevis could be the potential host that has prompted the migration of the fungus to other regions where it has devastated populations worldwide, particularly in Australia, Central and South America, New Zealand and Spain. Furthermore, an influx of interest in the study of amphibian communities has accentuated the cross-contamination of neighboring populations by unknowing individuals who have utilized contaminated gear into the field. This project will analyze the possible spread of the chytrid fungus based on recovered specimen and the timeframe which they were collected in. I will also link this data to possible species that may be the most influential vectors such as X. laevis and the bullfrog Lithobates catesbiena. Finally, I will present country specific examples of species that have undergone a dramatic population decline due to the introduction of the chytrid fungus. Though not all is known about the exact spread of this lethal fungus, this summation will paint a probable picture of how this migration has occurred.

Metamorphism. Chou Khang (Fashion Merchandising & Design)

The purpose of the poster board is to create an apparel design that pertains to the central idea proposed by the One World Initiative Symposium.  The poster board, Metamorphism, contains designs that have been transformed accordingly to the theme of migration.   The board demonstrated my knowledge of migration and the adaptation of the idea to my major, which is Apparel Marketing and Design. Metamorphism emerged from the inspiration of Monarch butterflies. These butterflies are well known for their once a year travel to their birth place to procreate the next generation of butterflies. When viewed, the poster board displays designs that incorporate features from the butterflies. The board also contains a brief context regarding the migration of these butterflies.  The designs suggest a blend of ready to wear fashion with an animalistic perspective to migration. Metamorphism is the mixture of the two concepts.

I am a Refugee. Jessica Leahy (International Relations)

Over 10 million people and growing are considered to be refugees.  In particular, refugees from Syria have reached over 2 million due to the ongoing civil war.  Working together with local refugee organizations, Peace and Conflict International club alongside Muslim Students Association would like to put on an event that is educational, interactive and proactive to understanding what it is to be a refugee and how an everyday Sacramento State student can help make a difference.  A discussion will be given on April 21st to present some background information of the conflict in Syria as well as what the current problems are facing the country and the increasingly high rate of refugees seeking asylum in various countries in the region.  Afterwards, we invite faculty and students to enter an area set up outside with interactive stations that cover the themes of "a day in the life of a Syrian refugee," "environmental impacts of refugees," "organizations that work with refugees," and "Foreign Policy, and Politics Within and Outside the Refugee Camps.

Lack of Diversity in the Fashion Industry. Amelia Meyers, Jonique Fields, Emily Jones, Mercedes Bens, & Danielle Miller (Family & Consumer Sciences)

We would like to propose a solution to an ongoing problem within the fashion industry. The problem is that the fashion industry has yet to fully open its doors to fashion designers and models of different ethnic groups such as African American, Hispanic and Asian. Although, the fashion industry has accepted more designers and models of color over the years, still the numbers are very low and should be much higher today, especially as our world continues to evolve from old stereotypes and prejudices into diversity and acceptance.

This problem is a hindrance to most aspiring designers and models of color, because they have to work doubly hard to get their foot in the door. Many fashion designers, especially models, are extremely frustrated because of the opposition they face in their pursuit of finding a successful career within the industry. Models of color like Naomi Campbell and Jourdan Dunn have been speaking out for years on this topic in an attempt to somehow change the reputation of the industry and give it a new face.

Recorded in a well-known fashion blog called, "Jezebel", are percentages of models from different ethnic groups who were represented at New York Fashion Week for Fall-Winter 2013 season; 82.7% white, 9.1% Asian, 6% black, 2% Latina, 0.3% other. Looking at the numbers it's clear that Fashion Week wasn't very racially diverse. For people of color the percentages were actually lower than those in 2009.

Tu, author of The Beautiful Generation, “explores the ascent of fashion’s Asian/American young guns and anchors their success in how they’ve made resourceful use of their connections to the bottom of fashion’s pyramid — the cutters and sewers who assemble the clothes imagined in couture’s luxe halls.” “There’s a racial capitalism in this industry,” says Tu. “If you look at the pyramid of fashion production, the lowest paid on the bottom are a certain color, and they’re the majority of the industry’s workers. Meanwhile, the small number of people at the very tip are another color.”

Although, Tu is focusing more on production within the fashion industry, his point ties in with ours. It gives reason to believe that women of certain color are considered necessary for menial or labor intensive jobs, rather than designing and modeling careers. As a solution to breaking down racial barriers within the fashion industry, we suggest writing letters stating the problem to fashion magazine editors and well-known designers.

Changing their perception can open the door and give entrance to beautiful people of color and of all races who possess exceptional talent and aspire to be a part of the industry. If the problem is not addressed consistently, it could potentially fade away becoming a thing of the past.

The fashion industry has migrated from having zero people of color in the past to currently having more than a few, but today the numbers should be greater, considering the leaps and bounds we have made as a people. It’s time for a multicultural fashion industry!

Fashion Brand Migration. Alina Musgrave (Fashion Merchandising & Design)

Fashion, as we know it today, is a direct reflection of the migration of shared ideas throughout the world.  With increased international travel and migration, the popularity of various brands has grown as products cross the globe through business, tourism and social media. These ideas are a driving force to the constantly evolving world of fashion.  We now see trends reaching farther than ever as we are now able to quickly share current trends around the world, rather than be confined to our immediate surroundings.

Solar Cookers: Cost Effective and Environmentally Friendly Tools for African Refugees. Chris Newell (Environmental Sciences), Jacob Leatherby (Economics), Jacob Schmitz (Environmental Studies/Business Administration), & Ezekiel Villacampa (Environmental Studies)

Environmental refugees need essential tools during their time of need that are cost effective and easy to distribute. Our poster presentation will be on different possibilities that environmental refugees can use in their time of need. These environmentally friendly tools will serve many purposes.  For example the solar powered cooker can be used for everything from cooking rice to purifying drinking water essential for survival. We will discuss their different applications and how they can effectively be used. We will also look into their ease of distribution and there cost effectiveness.

Man Enough: Eating and Somatoform Disorders in Competitive Male Athletes and the Development of Masculine Body Image. John Ramos (Dietetics)

Body image is an individual’s cognitive construct of their body, and their satisfaction with that idea.  Body image can be described as a conversation; an amalgam of varying factors in an individual’s life, including the media and cultural norms.  Research on ethnic groups in the United States shows that the degree of assimilation or acculturation can determine one’s ideal body image.  The conversation represents of the migration of ideas and ideals, which may have deleterious effects on mental health. Somatoform disorders are characterized by dissatisfaction with a particular body part that begets obsessive thoughts and manifests in body modification behaviors.  There are major differences between somatoform disorders in the Western hemisphere when compared to the Eastern hemisphere, where the majority of individuals who are diagnosed with a somatoform disorder demonstrate concerns with facial features.  The evolution of masculinity in the United States is observed in media images from the last fifty years.

Responses to a survey indicated a prevalence of poor body image among 119 NCAA Division 1/Varsity male athletes of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic/Latino ethnicities at California State University, Sacramento.  Although the majority of collegiate athletes consider themselves to be average weight, there were more who felt that in order to be athletically competitive or sexually attractive they should increase their muscle mass and decrease adiposity.  This trend is observed in all three ethnic groups, and may disprove previous claims that the impetus for increasing muscularity and decreasing adiposity is solely a performance related concern.  Masculinity and athleticism are not mutually exclusive in the United States, as masculine identity is frequently associated with strength, aggression, and success- common descriptors of athleticism.  The data suggest that more research must be done to evaluate the intent of collegiate athletes in increasing muscularity and/or decreasing adiposity to address the degree of influence of performance related objectives.  Furthermore, the data propose that pressure from coaches and team mates may provoke the majority of collegiate athletes, regardless of ethnicity, to prioritize increasing muscle mass over social and academic endeavors.     

These findings illustrate major trends in the migration of body image concepts.  Ideas migrate within communities or organizations, where individuals have common goals.  From the responses of athletes regarding the influence of coaches and teammates on an athlete’s desire to increase muscularity and decrease adiposity, it is apparent that the migration of ideas within competitive athletic communities needs more attention.  In the United States, where athleticism is highly valued, it is essential to examine how body image concepts develop within teams, and how these concepts become popularized through the media and advertising.

Aral Sea Desertification. Paul Riling (Forensic Biology) and Ruben Valenzuela (Environmental Studies)

The Aral Sea was once considered the fourth largest inland sea in the world.  Today, about 90% of the sea has vanished, making it one of the world’s worst environmental disasters. The Aral Sea started to diminish sometime in the 1920’s during Soviet control of Central Asia.  The Soviets developed massive water diversion projects to provide water to much of Central Asia in order to sustain agriculture and cotton industry. All of the major rivers leading to the Aral Sea were diverted, and until today the Sea remains deprived of water. The shrinking of the Aral Sea and the environmental effects associated with it, has induced migration and displacement throughout much of Central Asia. The UNHCR first reports indicate that around 270,000 people were forced to leave their homes during the 1990’s and many more have fled the region due the economic and health issues brought upon the Aral Sea crisis.

The Aral Sea once sustained a prosperous fishing industry and supported the livelihoods of the people within it the basin. The countries that were mostly impacted were Uzbekistan and parts of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Furthermore, soils from the dried up bed of the Aral Sea, became contaminated with large quantities of agricultural and industrial chemicals and posed a health threat to people in the surrounding regions. The contaminated soil would be blown long distances and the health effects associated with it include: cancer, lung disease, tuberculosis, anemia, digestive disorders, eye problems etc. Since 1992, nearly 100,000 people have left the Aral Sea area as a result of these problems. One of the biggest concern’s regarding the shrinking of the Sea is the massive amounts of toxic chemical left behind by the Soviets. The soviets conducted biological weapon testing in the island of Vozrozhdeniya(Rebirth Island). It is believed that soviets weaponized and tested anthrax, small pox, and the bubonic plague. The Island is now one of the most contaminated places on earth.

Despite ongoing intervention to restore the integrity of the Aral Sea, the UNHCR estimates that many more thousands of individual will be forced to migrate and relocate due to the environmental and economic hardships.

Fashion from the Streets to the Elite. Marley Shimamura (Fashion Merchandising & Design)

Migration of fashion not only occurs between decades and geographic location, but also through different social classes. Those of royalty or of a higher status differentiated themselves through their lavish clothing, while the common people were unable to afford such styles. However, history shows us that many trends and fashion crazes were innovated by those of a lower social class and adopted by those at the top of the social structure through the trickle-up theory.

Trickle-up theory in fashion occurs when either an article of clothing or a certain style is first worn by lower income groups and later adopted by the upper-class. Although there is a wide gap between these different social classes, high-fashion designers and fashion magazines serve as the bridge to disseminate these styles. Without the gap-bridgers, street fashion would not become a widespread trend and may be very short-lived. The street fashion that has either remained popular till this day are the essential t-shirt, blue jeans, leather jackets, and lace-up boots to name a few. Others involve revivals of fashion which include grunge and punk styles.

This presentation will highlight various styles that emerged from the streets and migrated up the social structure and are embraced by celebrities today.

Environmental Refugees – Defining the Concept. Cynthia Smith (Accounting)

The difference between being internally displaced and an environmental refugee can be a roadblock to obtaining aid in a foreign country. Environmental Refugees are in extreme need of support no matter what we want to call them. Let’s define these concepts in detail and end the confusion which is stalling the process of efficient and long lasting recovery for millions of people.  I propose that we extend the Geneva Convention and add a fifth convention to include ALL Refugees, Environmental as well as those driven from WAR. The number of people becoming refugees from climate related environmental disasters is increasing and we need to adopt some new provisions into international law.

Conservation of Migratory Birds and Wetlands on Staten Island, CA: Ramsar Potential? Ethan Valburg (Environmental Studies), Alex Bila (Kinesiology), & Nicholas Meyer (Environmental Studies)

Staten Island is an incredibly important spot for the lifecycle of the large Sandhill Crane here in California.  The site currently is being discussed as a potential spot for the construction of the Bay Delta Tunnel Project which would send water from Northern California to those in need in Southern California.  The tunnels, which would be built directly underneath Staten Island would require a large amount of mud and habitat disturbance to be installed.  The work area for these tunnels is estimated to be around 90 acres, both for installation and for servicing.  Aside from the areas needed for the work tunnels, there would also need to be disposal sites for the “muck” displaced from their construction.  These sites are proposed to be in the southeast corner of the island, an area known to be used as important habitat for the large Sandhill Cranes.  The large Sandhill Crane are an important species of bird, one that is designated a threatened species under state law.  The crane is listed as fully protected and state threatened according to the bureau of land management (Special, 2006), and was named Audobon California’s bird of the year in 2012 (Sandhill, 2012).  Currently, Staten Island is owned and managed by the Nature Conservancy and used as Sandhill Crane habitat, as approximately 20 percent of the cranes that winter in the delta use this island (n.a, n.d.). The importance of this site for the continued migration of the Sandhill Crane into the Sacramento Delta leads us to believe that the site should be considered as a Ramsar wetland of international importance, and it meets most of the criteria.  We will discuss and show statistics and information that lead us to these conclusions.

Microsatellite Marker Analysis of Population Structure in Convict Chichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). Alison Wagner, Caitlin Brady, and Courtney Miller (Biology)

The subject of our study, the convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata), was introduced into the pet trade in the United States in the 1950s. It has been increasingly used as a model organism for behavioral studies in fish that demonstrate parental care. These fish were originally imported from Central America, but due to the ease of breeding in U.S. fish farms, they are no longer imported from the wild for sale in pet stores. In this study, we examined genetic variation between a subsample of the hobbyist convict cichlids and subsamples from two natural populations (Costa Rica and Panama).  We hypothesized that the hobbyist population would be inbred relative to the wild populations, therefore not representative of the entire species.

We used fin clips collected from live fish to extract genomic DNA from eight fish from each of the three populations.  Four microsatellite loci were surveyed and all individuals were genotyped.  Genetic diversity was characterized in each of the three populations based on allelic richness, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, and heterozygote deficiency. The Hobbyist cichlids had the highest genetic diversity of all three populations. The Panamanian population is out of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, with significant inbreeding having occurred at all loci.  It is common for alleles to become fixed in small populations that deviate from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. This is substantiated by an observed heterozygote deficiency in the population. This could be attributed to the small sample population, unknown relatedness of the fish in the tank, and possible multigenerational breeding of the fish in the tank. The Costa Rican and Hobbyist populations were both in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium suggesting that these populations are not experiencing selective pressures. The Costa Rican population had a heterozygote excess which could be indicative of a recent bottleneck or due to recent sampling from the natural population. Based on the results of this study, our hypothesis was not supported.   A secondary observation of the results also revealed an interesting note about the two wild type populations. Despite being from opposite coasts, in two separate countries divided by mountains, these populations are very similar. Future studies from a broader geographic range may give a better indication of genetic diversity throughout the range of the species.

Migratory Birds and the Disappearing Food Source at the Salton Sea. Shannon Waters (Biology: Ecology, Evolution & Conservation)

The Salton Sea is a bizarre body of water located in the Imperial Valley of California.  Because of a combination of geological, hydrological and human-influenced factors, the Salton Sea is a 35 mile long body of water much saltier than the ocean.  Such incredibly high salinities are lethal to most life and yet the Salton Sea serves as an important habitat for many species of birds. Due to a large loss of wetland habitat in California, the Salton Sea now serves as a vital stopover for many birds migrating along the Pacific flyway.  There have been over 400 species of birds that have visited the Salton Sea and many of these birds are fish eating species, such as pelicans, gulls and terns. One of the few species of fish able to survive in such hostile conditions is an introduced hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x. O. urolepis hornorum); (a kind of cichlid fish native to Africa). The tilapia now serve as a critical food resource for these birds. However, it may not be this way for too much longer.

The Salton Sea is getting saltier. Given the combination of high heat seen throughout the year and varying inflow of water due to changes in water allocation by the State of California, salinity levels have been increasing by more than 0.3 g l-1 per year since the reduction of inflow of water began; with the current salinity reaching levels of 47 g l-1 in some areas of the Salton Sea and even higher in other areas.  Because of the salinity increase, there may be a large impact on the reproduction capability of the tilapia. The form of reproduction found in this species is mouthbrooding, which involves the female carrying the fry in her mouth until they are fully formed and free-swimming. While mouthbrooding offspring receive substantial protection from predation, this comes at a cost to the parent: typically a mouthbrooding parent cannot feed while the offspring are in the parent's mouth. Will the tilapia be able to survive at even higher salinity, and even more critical, will they be able to reproduce to provide a constant source of food for many of these birds that depend on them?

Our research investigates the reproductive ability of tilapia at extraordinary salinities to understand the tradeoffs these fish make in order to live and breed under such adverse conditions. Understanding these tradeoffs will inform water managers that need to make costly and vital decisions concerning water allocation in California.

International Perspectives on Migration. Students from the English Language Institute

The students of the English Language Institute present occupational, educational, and international issues surrounding migration from various cultural points of view. ELI students have explored migration through writing, discussion, research, presentation, and general exploration. They have approached the topic of migration from the perspectives of their fields of study, personal experience, and ongoing discovery.  This poster presentation session will yield energetic, authentic conversations surrounding migration issues as viewed from widely different perspectives within this small student community on campus. Presenting students and topics include:

Across the Border: Surviving a Life-or-Death CrisisHana Kim & Seunghun Yu (Hun)

Mongolian and Korean Metropolis MigrationBatchimeg Chuluunbaatar (Chimka) & Sangwon Han (Aiden)

The Effect of WW2 in Korea and TaiwanYoungwook Kim, Yeram Choi (Alice) & Wan-lin Lee (Kasley)

 Saudi Arabian Modernization and Forced MigrationFaleh Alsaleem & Mohammad Almusllam

 K-Drama and the Movement of Korean CultureYeasol Kang (Ellena), Yu Kyung Song (Irene) & Minji Jeong

 Migration Based on Traditional Fijian CultureIsaia Naulumatua

 South Korea and North Korea in Contrast, Insung Eom (Jack)