Student Symposium on Water. Redwood Room, 1-3 p.m.

Join us as Sacramento State students showcase their perspectives on water through presentation of papers, posters, art work, digital media, music and demonstrations  The symposium will be divided into three water-related themes, chosen to encourage interaction and exchange of ideas among students from a diverse set of disciplines, and to include a broad range of global perspectives on the theme of water:

SCHEDULE OF PRESENTATIONS (see below for abstracts)

Theme 1. Water: Peace and Conflict: As population increases and as climate change affects weather patterns and water supply, it has been suggested that water may become a major source of conflict in the future. At the same time, water has served as a potent symbol for peace and communities have come together peacefully to resolve water supply issues. 

Presentations (12:00 - 12:45 p.m.)

Posters/exhibits (12:45 - 1:00 p.m.)

Theme 2. Water: Health and Wellness: Access to clean water is essential to human health. Adequate water supply is essential to ecosystem health and therefore to food supply. Water-borne diseases are major issues in many parts of the world. Natural disasters such as drought and flooding have an impact on the health of a community. Water is also believed to have calming properties and proximity to bodies of water has been tied to mental wellbeing. Water often serves a prominent role in vacation plans, whether it be access to beaches and the ocean, cruise ships, water sports, or famous natural water features. 

Presentations (1:00 - 1:30 p.m.)

Posters/exhibits (1:30 - 1:45 p.m.)

Theme 3. Water Stories: Water has played a major role in the history of human civilizations. Water has also inspired countless pieces of art, music, and literature. For this session, presentations on the role of water in human society are highlighted.

Presentations (1:45 - 2:45 p.m.)

Posters/exhibits (2:45 - 3:00 p.m.)


Mekong River: From Potential Interstate Conflict to Peaceful Cooperation. Hanna Stelmakhovych (Government)

The flow of the Mekong River originates in the Tibetan Plateau and courses through the six countries of Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam and China. Local peoples along the riverbanks are dependent on the continual accessibility of this freshwater source for their livelihood, security, as well as for consistent human and economic development. Among the numerous daily activities that directly draw from access to the Mekong River are fishing and food cultivation, which are instances of the regular usage necessary to meet basic human needs and engage in productive economic activity. At the national level, the Mekong River plays a pivotal role in running hydropower plants, as these plants provide electricity for millions of people in urban areas, regions separated by geographic barriers, and in places where irrigation is required for commercial agricultural production.

High demand on the River and its resources is a potential point of conflict between actors with competing interests. A series of development projects, such as the construction of dams and hydro plants, diversion of water for irrigation, have proven destructive to the natural water flow of the River and have negatively impacted trans boundary water quality, quantity, and accessibility. Simply put, each decision regarding developmental water management has reciprocal repercussions in neighboring states; while these projects may provide immediate assistance to improve human and economic productivity in one country, the same project may pose a threat to human security by deteriorating human and economic development in another country. The magnitude of such negative repercussions exacerbates the possibility for interstate conflicts. Furthermore, changing weather patterns due to global climate change and environmental degradation have further contributed to the residual impact of the collective actions of those using the River.

To mitigate tension, the governments of the 6 countries have created the Mekong River Commission, which is tasked with the responsibility of developing cooperative water management practices that promote sustainable use and environmental conservation of the River's water across the national borders. This paper focuses on analyzing conflict mitigation techniques, as well as the effectiveness of prevention and resolution practices that foster peaceful regional cooperation on sustainable water development. This paper also addresses the issue of how these practices help to enhance institutional and human capacities for productive socio-economic development to promote stability in the region. 

Stories of the river, stories of the people: Memory on the Klamath River Basin. Brittani Orona (Public History)

While there have been many films, multi-media exhibits, and journalistic articles related to the Klamath River struggle between farmers, tribes, and the government, there have been few historic studies that relate to the Klamath River as a site of memory. The Klamath River Basin has served as the source of continued cultural and physical sustenance for the Hupa, Karuk and Yurok people of Northwestern California. With the building of eight dams on the Klamath River between 1903-1962 these forms of sustenance were severely threatened. Grassroots activism to remove the dams arose out of a devastating 2002 salmon die off and directly led to the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement and the Klamath Hydroelectric Settlement Agreement of 2010.

This project is an effort to combine oral history, historic research, and memory studies to convey the history of  Northwest tribal activism, grassroots efforts, and cultural memory on the Klamath River Basin. Research for this paper focuses primarily on the Karuk, Hupa, and Yurok collective memories. The paper aims to assess, not only the cultural importance of the Klamath River Basin, but also how cultural memory and meaning drove the efforts of tribal members to organize grassroots efforts to remove the Klamath River dams.

The paper developed out of an exhibition to be featured at the CSUS Anthropology Museum in Fall 2013 entitled: “Stories of the River, Stories of the People: Memory on the Klamath River Basin.” The exhibition will feature artwork, activism ephemera and posters, oral histories, and contemporary and historic photographs of the Hupa, Yurok, and Karuk people. The aim of the exhibition is to convey the history of the Klamath River Basin to the Hupa, Yurok, and Karuk people through cultural remembrance and contemporary grassroots activism. 

The right to water in international law. Cael Cox (Government)

Access to clean drinking water is a basic human necessity. However access to clean drinking water is not an expressly guaranteed human right in international law. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 25 alludes to the necessity of clean drinking water in that the right to a healthy life is contingent upon the healthy living conditions facilitated by access to clean drinking water. Furthermore at the 1977 United Nations Water Conference in Mar del Plata, Argentina the principle that Governments had an obligation to meet the basic water requirements of their peoples was first established. Later in 1992 the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development reaffirmed this principle in Agenda 21, which is a sustainable development agenda for the 21st century.

This principle obligates States to ensure access to a sufficient amount of safe water for drinking, personal sanitation, washing of clothes, food preparation, and personal and household hygiene. Yet it is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that the average human being in a temperate climate requires 50 liters of water per day to meet these essential human needs. Collecting these 50 liters can be a daunting daily task in many developing countries, where water sources are frequently more than a kilometer away and the only transportation option is walking.

These obligations also commit States to develop access to adequate sanitation, in order to protect the quality of water supplies and avoid contamination.  Yet a formalized self-standing human right to water has still not been established. Women, children and people with disabilities are greatly disadvantaged by the lack of access to clean drinking water: in many developing countries the division of labor is such that women and children are primarily responsible for collecting drinking water which can consume most of the time in their day. In rural areas and urban slums water collection often means carrying heavy containers over distances of several kilometers, which represents a huge opportunity cost to society at large in the form of lost productivity.   However in developing countries the lack of infrastructural capacity to provide access to this essential resource has left nearly 1.1 billion people without access to water that can be safely consumed according to the WHO.

While this number demonstrates the general magnitude of the problem, the reality is much worse: because millions of impoverished people living in slums are simply missing from the data because their settlements are not legally recognized. In order to address this tragedy the United Nations, international non-governmental organizations, community service organizations, and national governments have engaged in numerous cooperative efforts to halve this number globally by 2020 and achieve millennium development goal 7, target 10.  The WHO estimates that achieving the water and sanitation millennium development goal will save nearly half a million lives annually and generate another 320 million productive working days each year.

The realities of daily water usage. Sabrina Colias (Environmental Studies), Ryan Foley (Environmental Studies), Leah Haines (Recreation, Parks & Tourism Administration).

The project follows the One World Initiative water theme for this academic year and is a plastic bottle sculpture. The main message is to convey a visual representation of how much water the average American uses in a single day. The entire structure contains 104 bottles and lies on a 3’X4’ cardboard platform, making a pyramid of plastic bottles approximately 3.5 feet high. The 104 bottles add up to approximately 70 gallons of volume, which is the average daily use of water by a person living in America. The visual is an excellent shock value for individuals who are unaware of their water usage and puts the reality of our average daily water usage into an impression leaving perspective.  In addition to the sculpture of plastic bottles, there are posters explaining the purpose of the sculpture and what it represents in addition to important facts and suggestions. The first poster describes the actual structure itself and provides a count of what sized bottles and how many make up the sculpture. The second poster describes important and time sensitive facts about our water availability left on the planet, and how much water is consumed by people who live in America. The third poster provides useful tips on how to reduce this problem from an individual’s standpoint. The suggestions are very practical and effective, most of which alter daily routines. Together the sculpture and the posters provide an eye opening experience for people unaware of the issue, in addition to suggestions to help resolve the issue of water availability and misuse immediately.

Food availability does not affect filial cannibalism in Convict cichlid fish. Sadie St. Lawrence (Psychology)

Convict cichlids, Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, are known for investing a great amount of effort in the parental care of their offspring. Yet, sometimes convicts will consume their young which is known as filial cannibalism. In this study we investigate the occurrence of filial cannibalism in fed and unfed female convict cichlids. All female convict cichlid parents in the study consumed some of their young, 21% overall, but filial cannibalism did not significantly occur in one group more than the other. The females were weighed after spawning and weighed again after nine days of caring for their young. Females that were not fed lost more weight than the females that were fed. This data suggests that the staved females did use more energy in caring for their offspring but this did not cause them to eat their offspring more than if they were not under this amount of stress. 

Life or death for the Salton Sea? Shannon Waters (Biology: Ecology, Evolution & Conservation)

The Salton Sea is a bizarre body of water located in the Imperial Valley of California. Because of a combination of geological, hydrological and human-influenced factors, the Salton Sea is a 35 mile long body of water much saltier than the ocean. And it is dying.

Such incredibly high salinities are lethal to most life and yet the Salton Sea is a vital stopover for many migratory birds, such as pelicans, gulls and terns. These birds eat fish. One of the few species of fish able to survive in such hostile conditions is an introduced hybrid tilapia (a kind of cichlid fish native to Africa). The tilapia now serve as a critical food resource for these birds.

The Salton Sea is getting saltier. Will the tilapia be able to survive at even higher salinity, and even more critical, will they be able to reproduce to provide a constant source of food for these birds? Our research investigates the reproductive ability of tilapia at extraordinary salinities to understand the tradeoffs these fish make in order to live and breed under such adverse conditions. Understanding these tradeoffs will inform water managers that need to make costly and vital decisions concerning water allocation in California. 

Water treatment team design for ASCE MidPac Competition. Christine Rice (Civil Engineering)

Each year, the Water Treatment Team at Sac State competes in the American Society of Civil Engineers Mid-Pacific Competition by designing and constructing a water-treatment system for a hypothetical emergency scenario using only materials that can be found in a hardware store. The influent used for all teams contains a mixture of pine needles, dish soap, flour, potting soil, gravel, sand, tissue paper, tomato juice, yogurt, corn starch, lemon juice, and flush wipes. The goal of the competing designs is to produce the cleanest effluent with an emphasis placed on simplicity, sustainability, efficiency, structural and operational durability, creativity, and innovation. The water-quality parameters measured include pH, color, chlorine residual, nitrates, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and returned volume. In addition to water quality, teams were tasked with designing a sample tap that produced a flow rate of 1 L/min. This competition is an excellent way to promote the importance of civil engineers when it comes to providing safe and clean drinking water (although we do not recommend drinking the water that comes from our design). The competition exposed students to design, construction, chemistry, research, technical writing, and public presentation. 

If you build it, will they come? Implementing variance when forming restoration sites creates more suitable habitat for salmon spawningKaty Janes (Geology)

Over a half a century ago, the Sacramento Valley salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) population began a steady decline. Even today, after much research and effort by scientists and many millions of dollars for conservation efforts, the decline continues. The fisheries industry, now unable to ignore the crisis; is scrambling to develop new, more successful conservation measures. In a nod to Traditional Ecological Management, (TEK) many scientists and ecologists have begun to investigate the traditional management techniques of indigenous Karuk, Hupa, and Yurok people who depended on the fish for their survival in the Pre-European era of Northern California. Studies, which were largely panned by the scientific community until now, seem to show that the indigenous populations were adept at managing their fisheries quite sustainably for many thousands of years. Drawing on information from both ethno-historical and ecological studies, I will present four factors that may have been responsible for the successful management of salmonid stocks by the local indigenous population: 1. How much for how many? A look at harvesting techniques.   2. Environmental manipulation. 3. Resource rotation, and 4.Tribal structure and ritual.  In conclusion, I attempt to provide suggestions for raising ecological awareness and creating local investment in the American River urban area. Perhaps these ideas will help to reconnect a valuable population of salmon to the river ecosystem and its local human community.

H2O WatchDogs Sac State. Paul Oviatt (Environmental Studies)

I am taking ENVS 112 (International Environmental Problems) this semester, and I am part of a team that has been working on a water project.  For the purpose of this project we (i.e. my team & I) were to engineer an idea that would raise awareness towards water, with an emphasis in the direction of freshwater; we decided to create a Facebook page with its entire emphasis being on water.  We have added quite a bit of useful information, photos, web-links, and other content in that time.  We are also working on creating business type cards that have a bar-code emblem on them, that when scanned with a smart phone, takes the user right to our Facebook page. 

What we propose to do for our presentation is to be present, with either a tablet or laptop computer, and demonstrate our webpage.  We’ll already have it up and visible for attendees to view, and we’ll be handing out our business cards (w/weblink emblem), while demonstrating exactly how that works too.  Through interactions with those in attendance, we’ll share the knowledge that we’ve acquired through class, that which is available on the webpage, and experience.  It will be a simple demonstration backed by passionate people, such as myself.  The backbone to our Facebook page is the fact that, of all the water present on Earth, less than 1% (fresh) of that is available to us for the use in all our activities;  that which is unavailable—97%  (oceans/salty) and 2% (locked up in glaciers and ice caps).  This is to paint the picture that, while we live on a “water world”, we have a limited supply of the kind we need—so we must be more efficient and respectful of this most precious limited resource.  There is much more than that available to visitors to our Facebook page; the premise really focuses on conservation, whistle blowing on polluters, innovative ideas, links to water friendly agencies (e.g. Water Education Foundation)—all of which is tied to human health and wellness.

Wetlands and macroinvertebrate analysis. Alex Gwerder (Environmental Studies)

The CRAM wetland assessment method used for wetland delineation by the US Army Corps of Engineers is missing key symbols of environmental health. Ignoring biologic life within the system as a representation of how functional the wetland is only shows the basic levels of wetland health. Instead of only viewing the vegetation, soils, and hydrology, the biology can provide a greater measure of the higher trophic levels by measuring species richness and diversity. Therefore, the CRAM should be increased to assess the entirety of the wetland. In our experiment, we assessed macro invertebrate health in three separate wetland systems to gain an idea about wetland health. In each wetland, we sampled three bags of topsoil and leaf litter for the bank, the ecotone, and the upland area around the wetland. Species richness amongst the extracted insects then can be used to further assess wetland health and productivity as an environmental service (Anderson et al. 1999).

Nicaraguense Cichlids. Esther Tracy (Biology: Evolution, Ecology & Conservation)

Cichlids can be found from the Americas to Africa. One of the reasons why these fish are so fascinating comes from the parental care they provide their offspring. This can range from fanning the eggs to provide oxygen, guarding from predators by incubating eggs in their mouth, to feeding offspring by flipping over leaves. My research involved a unique cichlid species from Central America that builds tunnels to protect its offspring, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis.

H. nicaraguensis is found in lakes and rivers in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These rivers provide adequate habitat for these fish because they have clay banks in which the fish can drill holes and deposit their eggs. In extreme cases like in Rio Arenal, this species uses two rocks, which act as the roof of the tunnel and dug the sandy substrate out in order to form a tunnel. In these cases, the tunnels were found in faster moving water compared to the slower backwaters along the edges of rivers with clay banks. The clay substrate is more adequate for the fish to build their tunnels from since it is sticky enough to hold its shape while being hollowed out.

In order to obtain the measurements for the tunnels we traveled through out Costa Rica observing this species. The presence of juvenile, female and male H. nicaraguensis was recorded at each location, as well as the measurements for the tunnels. Tunnel dimensions and standard length of the fish was recorded using a folding meter stick. Once the fry, free swimming offspring, were able to leave the tunnels the presence of male H. nicaraguense was observed. In many cases the female was the only adult guarding the tunnel entrance when the offspring were still eggs.

H. nicaraguensis not only utilize their tunnels as a form of protecting for their offspring, but they also use it as a nest to hold the eggs. Unlike all other Central American cichlid eggs, H. nicaraguensis do not lay eggs that have adhesive threads that would normally allow the eggs to stick to substrate. If the eggs did have the threads they would likely suffocate due to the lack of oxygen in the mud. Preliminary studies using SEM microscopes comparing the outer composition of H. nicaraguensis to other Central American cichlid eggs, who have adhesive threads, have yielded results showing very different outer structure. Further testing comparing other non-adhesive eggs still need to be performed.

The average H. nicaraguensis tunnel circumference was measured to be 7.36 cm while tunnel depth was 24.57 cm. In many cases only the female was observed near the tunnel. Out of the 16 tunnels observed and recorded the average female standard length was 13.27 cm.  When the female and male pairs were observed protecting the free-swimming fry the average male standard length was 15.64 and female standard length was 11.99.

But will they survive? Caitlin Brady (Biology: Ecology, Evolution & Conservation)

Located in the Imperial Valley of California is a sea that plays a crucial role in the lives of many migratory birds. These birds use this 35 mile long sea as a pit stop on their travels. The birds’ main resource here is the fish that live in these salty waters - the waters that are so salty, in fact, that it is uninhabitable by most species aside from the durable, introduced species of tilapia originally from Africa. This sea is the Salton Sea and it’s getting saltier.

What happens when the sea that is already at salinity higher than the ocean gets saltier?

The tilapia already living in the Salton Sea may be able to adjust to the rising salinity, but the persistence of their species relies on their reproductive success and survival of the next generation. Our research focuses on the survivability of tilapia eggs and fry in increasing salinities. Knowing whether the eggs and fry can survive in these conditions will indicate whether the resource will disappear causing a disturbance in the diet and survival of the birds dependent on these fish. Decision makers will be better informed about pertinent decisions concerning the California water system and the allocation of resources. 

Habitat preference of intertidal fish in Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. Nathaniel Bell (Biology)

Tide pools were sampled within the rocky intertidal zone of San Miguel Biological Station, Cabo Blanco Absolute Reserve, on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. Sampling was done during six low tides between 23-28 June 2012. One hundred sixty fish traps, baited and not baited, were distributed at random among tide pools. Dimensions of each tide pool (LxWxD) were recorded and paired readings (start and end of low tide) were made of salinity and temperature at each trap site.

A total of 58 fish were captured in 31 fish traps (19.4% of the 160 traps set).  All of the captured fish were Panamic Frillfins (Gobiidae). Daytime salinities (10.0-33.5‰) were higher than nighttime values (12.5-33.0‰). Daytime temperatures ranged from 30.5-42.0°C and nighttime temperatures from 25-29°C. Salinity values remained stable from early to late low tide readings, both during daytime and nighttime sampling. Daytime temperatures were also stable during the low tide sampling period, but nighttime temperatures dropped during the sampling period.  Trap returns were higher during the day (24 traps) than at night (7 traps).  Additionally, fish were captured most often in tide pools with stable mean values of salinity and temperature.

Mouthbrooding does not constrain craniofacial diversity in Lake Tanganyikan cichlids. Sam Borstein (Biology)

Mouthbrooding, the parental care strategy in which the eggs or larvae are incubated in the mouth, may constrain craniofacial diversity in teleost fishes. In this study, we examined mouthbrooding and morphological diversity in cichlid fishes from East Africa’s Lake Tanganyika. This radiation is approximately 5-6 million years old and consists of nearly 200 species. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals that there is a deep split between a clade of substrate-spawning cichlids (Lamprologini) and a clade of mouthbrooding cichlids. We used geometric morphometric methods with the TPS family of programs to digitize a set of 25 sliding semi-landmarks along the dorsal and ventral outline of the head for every described cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika. We generated a morphospace of relative warps, retaining three axes that explained more variation than would be expected by chance. Head elongation or deepening was the major axis of diversity and accounted for 59.8 percent of variation. The other two axes explained 16 and 12 percent of variation and were driven by mouth angle and mouth size, respectively. We then examined patterns of diversity in the mouthbrooding and non-mouthbrooding sister lineages using the program Morphospace Disparity Analysis to generate 10,000 bootstrapped samples of the mean Euclidean pairwise distance, a common measure of morphological diversity. Surprisingly, mouthbrooding species exhibit nearly 2.5 times the average pairwise distance of non-mouthbrooders (3.1 in mouthbrooders vs 1.3 in non-mouthbrooders, p<0.01). Our results demonstrate that, contrary to expectations, mouthbrooding does not constrain craniofacial diversity in Tanganyikan cichlids.

An upstream Battle: Gravel augmentation on the American River. Jessica Bean (Geology)

The American River is one of three main tributaries to the Sacramento River Watershed.  This watershed contributes 31% of the total surface water used by over 38 million Californians each year, and with water demand growing throughout the state, preserving this crucial resource is a necessity for both human needs and ecological conservation. The Lower American River comprises the last 23 miles of the waterway that ends at a confluence with the Sacramento River and supports one third of Northern California’s Chinook salmon population.  Salmon are excellent indicators of a healthy river ecosystem, and a healthy river is crucial for clean water.  The decline of salmon populations in the Lower American River has been linked to the lack of suitable spawning gravel in the riverbed.  In response to this problem, 14,000 tons of gravel was placed at the Lower Sailor Bar study site as part of a gravel enhancement project to rehabilitate salmon spawning habitat.  This study evaluated the performance of the project by comparing physical and hydrologic conditions before and after augmentation.  Before restoration, the depth and velocity, gravel size distribution and dissolved oxygen levels in the river were far below those necessary for successful salmon spawning.    Post-restoration data show ideal spawning habitat conditions with water depths ranging from 0.6 ft. to 3 ft., velocity values in the range of 0.7 ft./sec. to 6.4 ft./sec., median grain size diameters ranging from .875 inches to 1.75 inches, and high average dissolved oxygen content of 93.7%.  The improved post-restoration conditions are conducive to salmon spawning as evidenced by usage of the site by fall-run Chinook Salmon. To spawn, salmon create a spawning nest in the riverbed that are visible in high resolution aerial photos.  Pre-restoration, during the 2011 spawning season, 52 redds were constructed in the study site.  In the spawning season following the restoration project, 133 redds were constructed.  That is a 150% increase in the use of the site by salmon following restoration.  The physical parameters measured in this study support the finding that gravel restoration is improving salmon spawning habitats and thereby cultivating a healthier watershed.

Freshwater Phenomena: I. Shaman's prayer - The annual surge into the Amazon; II. Migrating through the Mara River

Original composition by Josiah Catalan (music). Performed by Jamie Jun (flute), Addie Camsuzou (violin), Tyler Tsunekawa (marimba), and Carolina Hernandez (marimba)

Freshwater Phenomena is a piece inspired by natural phenomena's that occur by rivers around the world. The first part of this movement is based on a prayer of a Shaman from the Yanomami tribe, chanting for equilibrium within the Amazon's ecosystem. The Annual surge into the Amazon refers to the cascading release of millions of pounds of water within the towering trees of the Amazon rain forest, forming multitudes of little rushing rivers and surging waterfalls eventually finding its way into the Amazon River.

Migrating Through the Mara River draws inspiration from massive migration of hoofed animals traveling over 800 kilometers from the Serengeti to the Maasai Mara valley in search of water and more fertile land. Water makes its way annually from the Napuiyapi Swamp and the Amala river in the Kenyan Rangelands to form the Mara River, which depending on the season can form heavy rapids. This causes an obstacle for the herds migrating and gives predators in the area the upper hand in the hunt. For the animals that make it, they will have access to a replenished valley that will sustain them through the treacherous African summer.

Water is Key. AJ Valderama (Environmental Studies), Karl Durham (Business), Tho Nguyen (Health Sciences), and Cindy Henson (Civil Engineering)

Water is the life’s blood of the Earth. Access to clean, fresh water can determine whether a society will thrive or is doomed. When everyone in a given area receives their water from a community source, there is no choice but to go where the water is. In less developed areas of the world, a hike of a mile or more is sometimes required in order to obtain clean water for drinking and cooking. The act of obtaining water often determines where a family lives, what they eat, and how they spend their day to day lives.

Humans are consuming water at a much faster rate than Mother Nature restores it. Many of us in the more developed countries are not aware that our water usage affects the water availability of peoples all around the world. It is imperative that we realize that we now live in a global society and our actions, or lack thereof, affect people all over the world. Let us all vow to do our part to ensure that everyone has enough water to thrive.

Water in the martial arts of Asia. Michael Schmidt (Asian Studies)

When a person considers water, it is not probable they would view it as having a strong influence in the creation and philosophy of martial art styles all over the world.  The martial arts are styles and systems of scientific combative studies that have served as a means of war, personal defense, and health for every known society.  Each civilization’s unique history, religion, and philosophical heritage have played a key role in the development of the martial arts.

Water has a commanding presence in the world of martial arts.  The properties of water are what give many styles their personality.  In nature, water can change from a solid state to a liquid, from a liquid to a gas, and then ultimately back to a solid.  Water can either go around an obstacle or through one.  Water is a shapeless substance that can fit into any object or container and take on that object’s shape exactly.  It flows to the lowest point and is a constant moving force of energy. 

In the martial arts, some styles are more aggressive and focus on brute strength and very rigid movements as seen in karate.  When water freezes it becomes ice, and ice by nature is very hard and rigid.  Following the nature of ice, karate is limited in techniques, yet they are all very strong, square, and powerful. The state of liquid is very smooth and redirecting just like many styles of kung fu or wushu.  The wushu fighter does not match force with force, but rather combines the opponent’s strength with their own creating an amplified force in their retaliation.   In a gas form it is hard to contain or handle steam, for it is simply moist air. It is light and hard to see in its ascent.  Ninjas followed this state by becoming stealth assassins.  They would rather stealth kill their target and disappear into the shadows very similar to the way in which steam dissipates into the atmosphere.   Any martial art in existence can be categorized by one of these three states of water, thus revealing just how strong of an influence water has on the martial arts styles.

Water is literally everywhere including the martial arts.  Martial artists, not only in Asia but the rest of the world as well, have incorporated water into the development of their unique styles.  Depending on the area’s beliefs, practices, and environment their styles share similarities with ice, water, steam or any combination of the three.  In the religious and philosophical aspects water is also deeply rooted, for it represents the flow of qi that is found in every martial artist.  Some of the most famous masters in history have praised water for its part in martial arts, and after fifteen years of my own personal study, I cannot deny the importance water has played in my life as a martial artist.

Lessons from "Wuha Lehulume". Alicia Casteneda (Anthrology, Dayna Barrios (Anthropology, Wanya Poemsaweekul (Anthropology)

In Fall 2012, seizing the opportunity presented by the inauguration of the One World Initiative, three students in collaboration with a faculty mentor developed an independent study focused on Water, the One World theme for the year.  The study resulted a museum exhibit titled "Wuha Lehulume (Water for All): Water in Africa from an Anthropological Perspective".  This paper is divided into two parts: 1) we provide a ‘thick description’ of the project as it unfolded; and followed by, 2) an investigation of the process of learning that was enabled and the kind of knowledge produced by this project.  The presentation concludes with some thoughts on the implications of campus wide initiatives such as the One World Initiative on student learning.

Lesson of Restraint. Northern California Yurok, Hupa, and Karuk Tribes and Traditional Salmon Management: Ideas For Raising Awareness and Creating Salmon Sustainability In Sacramento's Urban Riverine Areas.Clara Crossman (Environmental Science)

Over a half a century ago, the Sacramento Valley salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) population began a steady decline. Even today, after much research and effort by scientists and many millions of dollars for conservation efforts, the decline continues. The fisheries industry, now unable to ignore the crisis; is scrambling to develop new, more successful conservation measures. In a nod to Traditional Ecological Management, (TEK) many scientists and ecologists have begun to investigate the traditional management techniques of indigenous Karuk, Hupa, and Yurok people who depended on the fish for their survival in the Pre-European era of Northern California. Studies, which were largely panned by the scientific community until now, seem to show that the indigenous populations were adept at managing their fisheries quite sustainably for many thousands of years. Drawing on information from both ethno-historical and ecological studies, I will present four factors that may have been responsible for the successful management of salmonid stocks by the local indigenous population: 1. How much for how many? A look at harvesting techniques.   2. Environmental manipulation. 3. Resource rotation, and 4.Tribal structure and ritual.  In conclusion, I attempt to provide suggestions for raising ecological awareness and creating local investment in the American River urban area. Perhaps these ideas will help to reconnect a valuable population of salmon to the river ecosystem and its local human community.

Wishing Well. April Fenall (Intercultural Communications)

Wishing Well is a compilation of ideas, thoughts, and wishes pertaining to water. The original idea grew from an art piece that I saw while in Calistoga. A random tree was on the corner with a sign that said "past loves". People left small notes of their past loves. My wish is that "Wishing Well" will not only allow people to indirectly participate in the One World Initiative but that it will travel beyond Sacramento, onto campuses and into neighborhoods with rich culture - representing the global community that we all live in. 

The Wishing Well will be placed in high traffic areas on campus at Sacramento State and at many of our local community college campuses from April 1 - 21.

Our Stories: Water issues from international perspectives. Students from the English Language Institute

Issues related to water use are truly a global concern. As international students studying English here at Sacramento State, we come from various regions around the world and bring unique perspectives on how water concerns are experienced worldwide. Working together, we will present several posters on a range of themes in the hopes that our voices will help you connect the issues with the specific people groups they affect. We are excited to share our stories and speak with people in our new adopted community.