Syllabus for PPA 240A Public Management - Section 1 - Fall 2006
CSU, Sacramento -Professors Robert Waste & Roger Dickinson
Office Location, Phone: 3036 Tahoe Hall - 916/278-4944 Cell # 804-8185
Email addresses: wasterj@csus.edu  and dickinsonr@saccounty.net

Office Hours: Mondays 3:00 - 5:00 & by appt.
Seminar Location & Time:  (Section 1) Monday 6-8:50 PM in ARC 1009       

Course Description:         
The purpose of this course is to teach students about public organizations and the challenges facing contemporary public managers. We will concentrate primarily on leadership and managing for effectiveness and accountability in the public sector. There will be a specific focus on leadership in state and local government in California, and on how public managers in these sectors manage organization change, solve problems and increase agency/team cohesion. In examining these topics, we will return repeatedly to the closely related topics of leadership and ethics in public sector policy and administration, and to the assumptions about organizational behavior that are embedded in the literature on organizational theory from the classics to the present.

Learning Objectives: Four Management Skill Modules
My larger "formative" learning objectives for PPA 240A are described in the course description above. In addition, the course has several discrete learning objectives, including the expectation that students will master the following five skill modules:

Familiarity with leadership literature, leadership skill building, and hands-on experience developing a personal/professional leadership development plan.

Familiarity with the concept of �organization culture� and how crucial understanding org culture is to creating a healthy and well-functioning workplace, in preventing and correcting organizational disasters such as the Space Shuttle Challenge tragedy, and also the City of Sacramento Fire Department scandal.

Familiarity with active listening and HR intervention strategies, with particular emphasis on affirmative action, sexual harassment, disciplining and responding to employees exhibiting alcohol/drug impairment problems, and hiring and firing.

Familiarity with strategies such as "Catalytic Mechanisms, and increased �Market Space� to increase public value in public agencies; and

Familiarity with organization theory as it applies to the public sector. Subjects to be examined include: the origin of the concept of bureaucracy; the origin of the field of public sector administration; the life cycle of public agencies; differences between vertical and horizontal communication; early leadership and management theories; and contemporary theories of org behavior and human relations in public agencies. 

 

Grades: Grades are based on the following assignments

(1)

Class attendance and participation

15%

 

 

 

(2)

A midterm and final exam. These include:

MIDTERM: A 6-8 page analytical paper due in class Monday night Oct. 16th. Drawing on material from Buckingham & Clifton, Now, Discover Your Strengths

Take the Gallup Strengthsfinder survey on the Internet at http://www.strengthsfinder.com

 Describe your leadership pattern including:

1. Your strengths & the order of your signature themes

2.  Your weaknesses

3.  Any �opposites�?

 

Agree or disagree with the leadership pattern suggested by the Strengthsfinder survey.

Describe 2 personal leadership or general life experience situations that illustrate you using the skills identified by the Strengthsfinder survey.

Describe 2 personal leadership or general life experience situations that illustrate you not using the skills identified by the Strengthsfinder survey.

Describe 3 concrete steps that you could take to strengthen your personal leadership strengths and patterns as identified by the Strengthsfinder survey.

Describe 3 concrete steps that you could take to manage around your weaknesses as identified by the Strengthsfinder survey.

Drawing on material from Buckingham & Clifton, Now, Discover Your Strengths, and your own research (articles, books, Internet resources, mentors & colleagues from work, and the suggestions of your peers in this seminar)  - Design a Work Plan (including a Timetable, Action Steps and Budget) for strengthening your own personal and professional Leadership Pattern. Include a vigorous and persuasive defense of your choices in the Work Plan � which responds to the written and verbal comments of a minimum of 2 of your PPA 240A seminar classmates. Do all of the above in no less than 8 pages and no more than 10 pages (double-spaced, size 12 font). Your title page and Bibliography do not count in the 8-10 page total.

 

Your Final Exam continues the effort to identify and strengthen your own leadership skills that you began to address in your Midterm Exam. This is a 10-page paper due December 11th (Mon.).  Drawing on material from Heifetz and Linsky, Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Through the Dangers of Leading:

Describe one leadership opportunity or general life experience where you did not �get on the balcony� � stepping back to get perspective while remaining actively engaged.

Describe one leadership opportunity or general life experience where you did not �give the work back � putting the responsibility on those who need to make the change.

Describe one leadership opportunity or general life experience where you did nothold steady� � maintain your focus while taking the heat.

Design a Work Plan (including a Timetable, Action Steps and Budget) for strengthening your own personal and professional Leadership Pattern by strengthening your ability to get on the balcony, to give back work & to hold steady. Include a vigorous and persuasive defense of your choices in the Work Plan � which responds to the written and verbal comments of a minimum of 2 of your PPA 240A seminar Design a Work Plan (including a timetable, Action Steps and budget) for strengthening these three aspects of your own personal and professional Leadership Pattern. Include a vigorous and persuasive defense of your choices in the Work Plan � which responds to the written and verbal comments of a minimum of 2 of your PPA 240A seminar classmates. Do all of the above in no less than 8 pages and no more than 10 pages (double-spaced, size 12 font). Your title page and Bibliography do not count in the 8-10 page total.

85%

 

Attendance Policy:
I consider enrolling in this class to be a commitment to me and to your student colleagues to attend each class session. We all benefit from everyone�s contributions. It is not okay to miss class for any but the most unavoidable of reasons Excessive absences jeopardize successful completion of the course. In addition to "seat time," the quality of your participation in class discussions will be reflected in your grade.

Seminar Format:
This is not a lecture class. If you come expecting to be told what was covered in the readings, you will be disappointed. My job is to select interesting and useful readings, orient you to them by identifying key questions, and to guide the discussion. Your job is to read the material, think about it, and come prepared to share your ideas with your classmates. We have the tremendous advantage that many of you, like me, work in the public sector. In our class discussions we will relate, whenever possible, the theories and concepts from the readings to our workday experiences. Those of you who work in public or not-for-profit sector organizations (and, after discussing your case with the instructor, those of you who work in for-profit organizations) will have the opportunity to construct your assignments around issues of importance to you in your work.

Required Books in the Order That We Will Read Them for the Seminar:

  1. Hal Rainey, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. Available at the campus bookstore and Amazon.com at this link: http://www.amazon.com/Understanding-Managing/dp/0787965618/sr=1-1/qid=1156975957/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-4024217-9503145?ie=UTF8&s=books new copies cost approximately $57, used at approximately $45. READ THIS BOOK FOR WEEK 2, Sept. 11 (Read: Chapters 1 & 11). For Week 3, Sept. 18, (Read Chapter3).

 

  1. Marcus Buckingham and Donald Clifton, Now, Discover Your Strengths (New York: Free Press, 2001). Available at the campus bookstore and Amazon.Com at this link: http://www.amazon.com/Discover-Your-Strengths/dp/0743201140/sr=1-1/qid=1156976076/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-4024217-9503145?ie=UTF8&s=books  It is important to buy this as a new book since it contains a one-time access code to an Internet-based Strengthsfinder survey that you will need to complete for the PPA 240A course midterm and final exams, and for class discussions and group assignments. READ THIS BOOK FOR WEEK 4, September 25 & complete the Strengthfinders Internet survey before coming to Class on Week # 4.

 

  1. Lynne Lancaster and David Stillman When Generations Collide. (New York: Collins, 2003). Used copies of this cost about $9 and new copies approximately $11 at bookstores & Amazon.com. Available at Amazon.Com at this link for about $11. http://www.amazon.com/When-Generations-Collide/dp/0066621070/sr=1-1/qid=1156975451/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-4024217-9503145?ie=UTF8&s=books

 

  1. Ronald Heifetz and Martin Linsky, Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Through the Dangers of Leading (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2002). Available in bookstores and Amazon.com at: http://www.amazon.com/Leadership-Line-Staying/dp/1578514371/sr=1-1/qid=1156975761/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-4024217-9503145?ie=UTF8&s=books This text is also used in PPA 240B.

Course Outline and Readings:

PART I: A QUICK LOOK AT LEADERSHIP

Week 1: Sept 4

Week 2: Sept 11

 

Labor Day (Holiday) Campus Closed

 

 

Introduction to Class Material & Classmates

Introduction to Public Sector Agencies, Public Sector

Org Cultures & Public Sector Leadership

Discussion Questions:

What is an �agency�?

What is �organizational culture�?

Did org culture play a role in the NASA space shuttle tragedies? Why or why not?

What is the Post 9/11 org culture of the FBI?

Who are the leaders in your life?

What qualities characterize good leaders?

Must a good leader also be an ethical leader? - Why or why not?

(Professors Dickinson & Waste tonight).

Reading:

1.      Rainey, Chapter 1 & 11. Come to class prepared to discuss this material, and

in particular, be prepared to discuss the chart on page 19, and Rainey�s Figures

1.1 & 1.2. We will be reviewing all of the facets � particularly organizational culture �

that are included in the concept of �organization,� �agency,� or �bureaucracy.�

 

2.      Read for tonight this analysis of org culture at NASA analyzing why changes in

NASA following the 1986 Challenge tragedy were not going to correct what many

analysts now believe were literally fatal flaws in the workplace org culture of NASA�s

space shuttle program.

http://www.students.stedwards.edu/csanche5/NasaCaseStudy.htm

Week 3: Sept. 18

 Effective Managers: The Easy Lessons

Catalytic Mechanisms, BHAG�s & Creating New Market Space

Brainstorming Guidelines

Building Trust via �Tipping Point� Contributions & Admiring Antagonists

Drucker: Feed Strengths & StarveWeaknesses

Manage Your Time: Small-Scale Strategic Planning (S3p).

Running Effective Meetings

Formative Evaluation/Motivation

The Harvard Negotiating Tactic: Separate interests from positions 

Read:

1.      Rainey, Chapter 7.

2.      We will also consider a Post 9/11 management case study. Read for tonight,

about change and the lack of change in the FBI in the Post 9/11 era.

What�s changed & what hasn�t & why? See the July 2006 article from the

Washington Post at this link:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/17/AR2006081701485_pf.html

PART II. STRENGTHENING PUBLIC SECTOR LEADERSHIP FOR

BETTER POLICY, BETTER ADMINISTRATION & STRONGER ORG CULTURES

Week 4: Sept. 25

Now, Discover Your Strengths

Read: Now, Discover Your Strengths & Take the Gallup Strengthsfinder survey on

the Internet at http://www.strengthsfinder.com

Describe your leadership pattern including:

Your strengths & the order of your signature themes. Be prepared to discuss

this topic in seminar tonight & in small groups.

 

Week 5: Oct. 2

Peer Feedback � How Can You �Grow� Your Strengths & Manage

Around Your Weaknesses?

Read: Now, Discover Your Strength, Part III.

PART III  WORKING WITH � AND AROUND � ORG CULUTRE IN HR ISSUES

IN PUBLIC AGENCIES

Week 6: Oct. 9

Org Culture & Human Relations (HR) Session # 1 -

Scenarios & Intervention Strategies

Active Listening

Guidelines for Achieving Affirmative Action

Guidelines for Identifying Sexual Harassment

Intervention Strategies to Cope with HR Issues, i.e.:

        active listening scenario work

        sexual harassment scenarios work

        drug/alcohol scenario work  

Read:

1.       Read the description of Empathic or Active Listening at the following link:

http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/empathic_listening/. See also the approach of the

Harvard negotiating Project at this site:

http://www.usatoday.com/money/books/reviews/2005-10-09-beyond-reason-usat_x.htm

2.      Read also the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission definition of

sexual harassment in the workplace at this link:  

http://www.eeoc.gov/types/sexual_harassment.html; and

3.      The EEOC �Facts About Sexual Harassment� at

http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-sex.html

4.      See also, a helpful summary of guidelines for dealing with employees

with common - and exceptional - HR problems published by the University

of Wisconsin at Oshkosh at:

http://www.uwosh.edu/eap/chairs_supervisors/specificproblems.php

Week 7: Oct. 16

Org Culture & HR (Session # 2) � When Org Culture Becomes

Dysfunctional -Learning from Case Studies of Alleged Unprofessional

Behavior & Sexual Misconduct in a Public Fire Agency

This week we will examine in seminar & in group work how a public agency should

respond to several scenarios involving HR issues in a public fire agency. Each of the

scenarios analyzed in seminar actually happened. Our job tonight will be to determine

how public policy/administration professional should respond to HR challenges

presented by generational changes in the workforce and workforce leadership

of a public agency.

READ: When Generations Collide (entire).

Consider for this week's seminar, a hypothetical city fire agency in which fire

personnel participated in the following activities and believed that the behavior

was defensible and appropriate: How can this be the case? Why? What should

the agency do in response to the behavior? Why? Consider the following

behaviors:

        Use of fire equipment for personal use - fire engines, personnel & uniforms

used for a marriage ceremony

        Cruising bars & X-rated bookstores in uniform, using agency equipment &

on agency time

Cruising a "Porn Ball" in uniform, using agency equipment, on agency time

& failing to respond to Calls for Service while doing so.

Allegedly engaging in what might euphemistically be described as un-sanctioned

un-clothed informal "team-building exercise" in agency buildings & on agency time.

Take-home Midterm Paper - Due in Class this Session (Monday. Oct.16).

 

Week 8 -Oct. 23

 

 

 

 

 

Org Theory/HR Case Study (Session # 3) How Did the Agency Actually Respond?

Could We/They Have Done Better - Why or Why Not? Also, a Cutting-Edge Approach

to HR - the Portland Personnel Model -

READ:The Sacramento Bee article included at the bottom of this syllabus.

Invited Guests:

City of Sacramento Fire Chief Julius Cherry &

Sacramento Area Fire Fighters Local 522 President Brian Rice

 

PART IV ORGANIZATION THEORYFrom the Classics to the Present

Weeks 9, 10 & 11

 

Oct. 30, Nov. 6 & Nov. 13

��� Read:

Hal Rainey, Understanding & Managing Public Organizations. Chapters 1-3.

James Q. Wilson, Bureaucracy, PART IV Executives, Chapters 10, 11 & 12 on

Turf, Strategies & Innovation.

The origin of the concept of bureaucracy (Weber)
Origin of the public administration field (Wilson)
The life cycle of public agencies (Downs)

Org Culture & Dysfunction (Merton)
Vertical versus horizontal communication

Scientific Management & �Fordist� Approaches (Taylor, Mayo & The Hawthorne

Experiment)

Early leadership and HR theories (Barnard)

Informal versus formal organizations (Barnard)
Maslow�s Hierarchy of Needs & Theories X-Z

Contemporary HR approaches (Rainey)

 

Weeks 12-13
Nov. 20 & 27    

PART V LEADERSHIP & ETHICS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

Leadership on the Line - Strengthening your ability to get on the balcony,

to give back work & to hold steady. For these seminar sessions, we have the

privilege of teaching & guidance from our MPPA Guest Practitioner & Professor �

Sacramento County Supervisor Roger Dickinson

Week 14 Dec. 4

 

Week 15 Dec. 11

Peer Feedback Session on Your Leadership Development Work Plan

 

Leadership (VI): Leadership & Professional Ethics

Take-Home Final Paper Due in Class Tonight (Monday, Dec.  11)

(Professors Dickinson & Waste tonight).

Read: The ASPA Code of Ethics, and

Robert Denhardt, The Pursuit of Significance, Chapter 6A Dedication to

Public Service & A Concern for Integrity in the Public Service.

The ASPA Code of Ethics is as follows:

ASPA's Code of Ethics

I. Serve the Public Interest
Serve the public, beyond serving oneself. ASPA members are committed to:

  1. Exercise discretionary authority to promote the public interest.
  2. Oppose all forms of discrimination and harassment, and promote affirmative action.
  3. Recognize and support the public's right to know the public's business.
  4. Involve citizens in policy decision-making.
  5. Exercise compassion, benevolence, fairness and optimism.
  6. Respond to the public in ways that are complete, clear, and easy to understand.
  7. Assist citizens in their dealings with government.
  8. Be prepared to make decisions that may not be popular.

 

II. Respect the Constitution and the Law
Respect, support, and study government constitutions and laws that define responsibilities of public

agencies, employees, and all citizens. ASPA members are committed to:

  1. Understand and apply legislation and regulations relevant to their professional role.
  2. Work to improve and change laws and policies that are counterproductive or obsolete.
  3. Eliminate unlawful discrimination.
  4. Prevent all forms of mismanagement of public funds by establishing and maintaining strong

fiscal and management controls, and by supporting audits and investigative activities.

  1. Respect and protect privileged information.
  2. Encourage and facilitate legitimate dissent activities in government and protect the

Whistle-blowing rights of public employees.

  1. Promote constitutional principles of equality, fairness, representativeness, responsiveness

and due process in protecting citizens' rights.

 

III. Demonstrate Personal Integrity
Demonstrate the highest standards in all activities to inspire public confidence and trust in public service.

ASPA members are committed to:

  1. Maintain truthfulness and honesty and to not compromise them for advancement, honor, or

personal gain.

  1. Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions.
  2. Zealously guard against conflict of interest or its appearance: e.g., nepotism, improper

outside employment, misuse of public resources or the acceptance of gifts.

  1. Respect superiors, subordinates, colleagues and the public.
  2. Take responsibility for their own errors.
  3. Conduct official acts without partisanship.

 

IV. Promote Ethical Organizations
Strengthen organizational capabilities to apply ethics, efficiency and effectiveness in serving the public.

ASPA members are committed to:

  1. Enhance organizational capacity for open communication, creativity, and dedication.
  2. Subordinate institutional loyalties to the public good.
  3. Establish procedures that promote ethical behavior and hold individuals and organizations

accountable for their conduct.

  1. Provide organization members with an administrative means for dissent, assurance of due

process and safeguards against reprisal.

  1. Promote merit principles that protect against arbitrary and capricious actions.
  2. Promote organizational accountability through appropriate controls and procedures.
  3. Encourage organizations to adopt, distribute, and periodically review a code of ethics as a

living document.

 

V. Strive for Professional Excellence
Strengthen individual capabilities and encourage the professional development of others. ASPA members

are committed to:

  1. Provide support and encouragement to upgrade competence.
  2. Accept as a personal duty the responsibility to keep up to date on emerging issues and potential

problems.

  1. Encourage others, throughout their careers, to participate in professional activities and associations.
  2. Allocate time to meet with students and provide a bridge between classroom studies and the

realities of public service.