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Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP)

IAP Overview
IAP is a research-based approach to transitioning youth from confinement back into the community. The research and development of this project began in 1988 under the direction of Dr. David Altschuler, Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Troy Armstrong, California State University, Sacramento. Funding of this project was an initiative of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).

IAP stresses that both surveillance and treatment services are critical to the successful reintegration of youth into the community. Planning for reintegration begins when a youth first enters residential placement and involves the cooperative assistance of institutional staff, community aftercare staff, and community service providers. The success of the IAP model depends upon close collaborations involving juvenile justice professionals, the youth’s family and his/her home community.

The demonstration phase of this project, which encompassed work with three states that implemented pilot intensive aftercare programs based on the model developed by Drs. Altschuler and Armstrong, was completed in June 2000. The IAP project has also provided extensive technical assistance to a variety of communities and juvenile justice organizations implementing the IAP model.

IAP Principles
The IAP model is grounded in five underlying principles for reintegration:

  1. Preparing youth for progressively increased responsibility and freedom in the community
  2. Facilitating youth-community interaction and involvement
  3. Working with both the offender and community support systems on qualities needed for constructive interaction and the youths’ successful return to the community
  4. Developing new resources and supports where needed
  5. Monitoring and testing the youth’s and the community’s ability to work productively together

The IAP demonstration ended in June, 2000 and has evolved into a technical assistance and training function by establishing the IAP Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center located at the Center for Delinquency & Crime Policy Studies

IAP Juvenile Reintegration & Aftercare Center Mission

The mission of the IAP Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center is to help agencies, both public and private, develop and implement programming for successful transition and re-entry of juvenile offenders into the community from out-of-home placement. The Center’s primary goal is to promote best practices in juvenile transition and aftercare systems through training, technical assistance, on going research, and linkage with other technical assistance and service providers. The Intensive Community-Based Aftercare model provides for increased public safety and normalization of offenders in the community by providing intensified treatment services and higher levels of community surveillance.

Each year tens of thousands of juveniles enter juvenile detention, correctional, and treatment programs. Many youth spend significant time in one or more of a variety of public and private residential placements. All but a few of these youth will eventually return to the community.

The IAP Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center promotes best practices in juvenile transition and community aftercare services, provides training and technical assistance to state and local juvenile justice organizations and service providers, conducts and reviews ongoing research, and links with other juvenile justice technical assistance and program providers to share information and resources.

The Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center is designed to provide state, county, and local community agencies with assistance on developing and implementing effective transition and community aftercare services. The Center provides the following services:

  • Training and Technical Assistance
  • Information Dissemination
  • Website
  • Linkage to Aftercare Resources including publications and training and technical assistance

Training and Technical Assistance
The Center maintains a pool of consultants with special knowledge and experience in the design and implementation of intensive juvenile reintegration and aftercare services using the IAP model. The Center functions as a clearinghouse for requests for training and technical assistance, including requests for:

  • Information (educational) sessions – Training on the IAP model generally delivered at workshops or conferences. Informational training usually ranges from one to eight hours, but can be extended to encompass several days if circumstances and needs justify comprehensive coverage of topics and planning activities.
  • Skills Training & Development – Job specific training for persons responsible for the day-to-day delivery of services. Examples include: case planning, developing incentives and graduated sanctions, working with special populations, and working with community service providers.
  • System Assessment – Review of the delivery of aftercare/transition services within the current system. Recipients of a system assessment will receive a detailed follow-up report that outlines the current system, highlights the system’s strengths and challenges, and provides options and recommendations for reform.
  • Strategic Planning – A systematic process for identifying the overall course and direction of intensive aftercare and reintegration. This process usually involves a combination of state and local service managers and service providers (public and private).
  • Organizational Development – Technical assistance to an agency (or agencies) to develop the organizational capacity to implement the IAP model.
  • Program Development & Implementation – Technical assistance in developing a site-specific IAP plan including risk and needs assessments, surveillance procedures, graduated sanctions, behavioral incentives, community-based services, services for specialized populations, and linkages with local social networks.
  • Program Evaluation – Evaluation of the implementation and effectiveness of a specific program or component within a juvenile reintegration system.

Information Dissemination
The Center maintains a library of IAP documents and a database of available resources that is provided to anyone requesting information about the IAP model or other aftercare/reintegration projects.

The Center’s Website provides viewers an overview of the IAP project, downloadable IAP documents, links to OJJDP-published aftercare documents, Training and Technical Assistance Request Form, consultant information, and links to other aftercare initiatives.

Linkage to Aftercare Resources
The Center has established both formal and informal links with other aftercare initiatives and technical assistance resources to provide states and communities with the latest information and available services.

American Corrections Association

American Probation and Parole Association

Barriers and Promising Approaches to Workforce and Youth Development for Young Offenders

Department of Labor - Youth Programs

JAIBG Funding for IAP Program Development-Development Services Group

National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges

National Criminal Justice Reference Service

National Institute of Corrections

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

OJJDP National Training and Technical Assistance Center

Performance-based Standards for Juvenile Corrections and Detention Facilities

Transition Planning and Services - National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice

Achieving Positive Results with Serious Juvenile Offenders in A Reintegrative Framework: Strategies Essential for Rehabilitative Effectiveness with the Intensive Aftercare (in progress for publication).
Paper presented by Dr. Armstrong at international conference in 2003.

Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: A Community Care Model: Describes the IAP model and provides interim results from the research and develop phase of the initiative.

Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Policies and Procedures: provides an overview of the structure and function of key program elements and components of the IAP model

Intensive Aftercare Reference Guide (2004) - Sourcebook of information on the "lessons learned" from the 5-year IAP demonstration phase and research on other recent reintegration and aftercare efforts.

Implementation of the Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Program (2000): Describes the implementation of the IAP model in Colorado, New Jersey, Nevada and Virginia and includes an assessment of the extent to which implementation has been successful. This document also identifies the factors that facilitate implementation and those that impede it.

Overrepresentation of Minorities in Youth Correctional Confinement in the United States: A Promising Aftercare Approach for Ameliorating this Problem (2005)
Co-authored with Lonnie Jackson, Office of Minority Services, Oregon Youth Authority. Printed in: Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice, Nicolas Queloz, et al., editors. Staempfli Editions, SA: Berne, Switzerland. Paper originally presented at an international conference.

Reintegration, Supervised Release, and Intensive Aftercare (1999): Comparative analysis of five IAP projects and a commentary on the effectiveness of aftercare programs.

Technical Assistance and Training
Technical assistance in designing, implementing and evaluating a reintegration and aftercare program may be available through a variety of sources. The Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center is your best link to these resources. The Center can arrange for technical assistance through its Intensive Aftercare Project or refer you to another potential source including federal and state agencies and numerous professional organizations.

To learn more about or request training and technical assistance contact the Center or complete a Training and Technical Assistance Request Form and send it to the Center.

Contact Information
Troy Armstrong, Ph.D., Director and Co-Principal Investigator
Center for Delinquency & Crime Policy Studies
California State University, Sacramento
7750 College Town Dr, Suite 208
Sacramento Ca 95826
Phone: (916) 278-5737
Fax: (916) 278-4560

David Altschuler, Ph.D., Co-Principal Investigator
Johns Hopkins University
Institute for Policy Studies
Phone: (410) 516-7179