Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP)
IAP is a research-based approach to transitioning youth from confinement
back into the community. The research and development of this
project began in 1988 under the direction of Dr. David Altschuler,
Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Troy Armstrong, California State
University, Sacramento. Funding of this project was an initiative
of the Office
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).
IAP stresses that both surveillance and treatment services are
critical to the successful reintegration of youth into the community.
Planning for reintegration begins when a youth first enters residential
placement and involves the cooperative assistance of institutional
staff, community aftercare staff, and community service providers.
The success of the IAP model depends upon close collaborations
involving juvenile justice professionals, the youth’s family
and his/her home community.
The demonstration phase of this project, which encompassed work
with three states that implemented pilot
intensive aftercare programs based on the model developed
by Drs. Altschuler and Armstrong, was completed in June 2000.
The IAP project has also provided extensive technical assistance
to a variety of communities and juvenile justice organizations
implementing the IAP model.
The IAP model is grounded in five underlying principles for reintegration:
- Preparing youth for progressively increased responsibility
and freedom in the community
- Facilitating youth-community interaction and involvement
- Working with both the offender and community support systems
on qualities needed for constructive interaction and the youths’
successful return to the community
- Developing new resources and supports where needed
- Monitoring and testing the youth’s and the community’s
ability to work productively together
The IAP demonstration ended in June, 2000 and has evolved into
a technical assistance and training function by establishing the
IAP Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center located at the
Center for Delinquency & Crime Policy Studies
IAP Juvenile Reintegration & Aftercare Center Mission
The mission of the IAP Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center
is to help agencies, both public and private, develop and implement
programming for successful transition and re-entry of juvenile
offenders into the community from out-of-home placement. The Center’s
primary goal is to promote best practices in juvenile transition
and aftercare systems through training, technical assistance,
on going research, and linkage with other technical assistance
and service providers. The Intensive Community-Based Aftercare
model provides for increased public safety and normalization of
offenders in the community by providing intensified treatment
services and higher levels of community surveillance.
Each year tens of thousands of juveniles enter juvenile detention,
correctional, and treatment programs. Many youth spend significant
time in one or more of a variety of public and private residential
placements. All but a few of these youth will eventually return
to the community.
The IAP Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center promotes best
practices in juvenile transition and community aftercare services,
provides training and technical assistance to state and local
juvenile justice organizations and service providers, conducts
and reviews ongoing research, and links with other juvenile justice
technical assistance and program providers to share information
The Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare Center is designed to
provide state, county, and local community agencies with assistance
on developing and implementing effective transition and community
aftercare services. The Center provides the following services:
- Training and Technical Assistance
- Information Dissemination
- Linkage to Aftercare Resources including publications and
training and technical assistance
Training and Technical Assistance
The Center maintains a pool of consultants with special knowledge
and experience in the design and implementation of intensive juvenile
reintegration and aftercare services using the IAP model. The
Center functions as a clearinghouse for requests
for training and technical assistance, including requests
- Information (educational) sessions – Training on the
IAP model generally delivered at workshops or conferences.
Informational training usually ranges from one to eight hours,
but can be extended to encompass several days if circumstances
and needs justify comprehensive coverage of topics and planning
- Skills Training & Development – Job specific training
for persons responsible for the day-to-day delivery of services.
Examples include: case planning, developing incentives and
graduated sanctions, working with special populations, and
working with community service providers.
- System Assessment – Review of the delivery of aftercare/transition
services within the current system. Recipients of a system
assessment will receive a detailed follow-up report that outlines
the current system, highlights the system’s strengths
and challenges, and provides options and recommendations for
- Strategic Planning – A systematic process for identifying
the overall course and direction of intensive aftercare and
reintegration. This process usually involves a combination
of state and local service managers and service providers
(public and private).
- Organizational Development – Technical assistance to
an agency (or agencies) to develop the organizational capacity
to implement the IAP model.
- Program Development & Implementation – Technical
assistance in developing a site-specific IAP plan including
risk and needs assessments, surveillance procedures, graduated
sanctions, behavioral incentives, community-based services,
services for specialized populations, and linkages with local
- Program Evaluation – Evaluation of the implementation
and effectiveness of a specific program or component within
a juvenile reintegration system.
The Center maintains a library of IAP documents and a database
of available resources that is provided to anyone requesting information
about the IAP model or other aftercare/reintegration projects.
The Center’s Website provides viewers an overview of the
IAP project, downloadable IAP documents, links to OJJDP-published
aftercare documents, Training
and Technical Assistance Request Form, consultant information,
and links to other aftercare initiatives.
Linkage to Aftercare Resources
The Center has established both formal and informal links with
other aftercare initiatives and technical assistance resources
to provide states and communities with the latest information
and available services.
and Parole Association
and Promising Approaches to Workforce and Youth Development for
of Labor - Youth Programs
JAIBG Funding for IAP Program Development-Development Services Group
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
Justice Reference Service
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
Training and Technical Assistance Center
Standards for Juvenile Corrections and Detention Facilities
and Services - National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile
Achieving Positive Results with Serious Juvenile Offenders in A Reintegrative Framework: Strategies Essential for Rehabilitative Effectiveness with the Intensive Aftercare (in progress for publication).
Paper presented by Dr. Armstrong at international conference in 2003.
Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: A Community Care Model:
Describes the IAP model and provides interim results from the
research and develop phase of the initiative.
Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Policies and Procedures:
provides an overview of the structure and function of key program
elements and components of the IAP model
Intensive Aftercare Reference Guide (2004) - Sourcebook of information on the "lessons learned" from the 5-year IAP demonstration phase and research on other recent reintegration and aftercare efforts.
of the Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Program (2000):
Describes the implementation of the IAP model in Colorado, New
Jersey, Nevada and Virginia and includes an assessment of the
extent to which implementation has been successful. This document
also identifies the factors that facilitate implementation and
those that impede it.
Overrepresentation of Minorities in Youth Correctional Confinement in the United States: A Promising Aftercare Approach for Ameliorating this Problem (2005)
Co-authored with Lonnie Jackson, Office of Minority Services, Oregon Youth Authority. Printed in: Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice, Nicolas Queloz, et al., editors. Staempfli Editions, SA: Berne, Switzerland. Paper originally presented at an international conference.
Supervised Release, and Intensive Aftercare (1999): Comparative
analysis of five IAP projects and a commentary on the effectiveness
of aftercare programs.
Technical Assistance and Training
Technical assistance in designing, implementing and evaluating
a reintegration and aftercare program may be available through
a variety of sources. The Juvenile Reintegration and Aftercare
Center is your best link to these resources. The Center can arrange
for technical assistance through its Intensive Aftercare Project
or refer you to another potential source including federal and
state agencies and numerous professional organizations.
To learn more about or request training and technical assistance
contact the Center or complete a Training
and Technical Assistance Request Form and send it to the Center.
Troy Armstrong, Ph.D., Director and Co-Principal Investigator
Center for Delinquency & Crime Policy Studies
California State University, Sacramento
7750 College Town Dr, Suite 208
Sacramento Ca 95826
Phone: (916) 278-5737
Fax: (916) 278-4560
David Altschuler, Ph.D., Co-Principal Investigator
Johns Hopkins University
Institute for Policy Studies
Phone: (410) 516-7179