Dr. Foley's Biogeography Syllabus

Office Hours

BioSci 283 	Biogeography	Spring 2000
We meet 	TuTh 5:30-6:45 in Humboldt 109
Instructor	Patrick Foley (PhD UCDavis evolutionary genetics. My interests include: conservation biology, 
			persistence and extinction of populations, epidemiology, animal-plant coevolution and ecology, behavior )
email patfoley@csus.edu, office 278-6883, home (530) 753-6147
Office Hours 	Science 528	Tu 12-1, Th 12-2		
BioSci office 	Science 202, phone 278-6535
Texts		Brown, James and Mark Lomolino 1998. Biogeography. Sinauer. We will also read and discuss 
papers that I will draw from the literature.

Grading will be based on 3 reports, 3 previews and class participation.
25 points	Report 1 (individual) Give a 10 minute report and a 6 page paper on the descriptive and historical biogeography of a family-sized clade.
25 points	Report 2 (individual) Give a 10 minute report and a 6 page paper attempting to evaluate the modes of important biogeographic processes 
			for this same clade, processes such as speciation, extinction and dispersal.
25 points	Report 3 (group of up to 4 students) Give a 15 minute talk and a two page outline with references on some important contemporary problem 
			in biogeography. This is expected to be work in progress (no paper), but a serious effort to build on the contemporary literature is desirable.
5 points each	for three preview outlines and discussion.
10 points 	for class participation, i. e. attendance, leading the reading discussion, answering questions, arguing with me and other students over 

The idea of the first two reports is to encourage each student to become an expert in their chosen family and to teach the rest of us what they have 
learned. The family you choose may well be a group that you plan to do your masters research project on or some other group of special interest to you. 
If two students want to work on the same group, we will need to find a way to deal with that. Some families of animals (Muridae) and plants (Asteraceae, 
Fabaceae) are too large to do in a semester course. A subfamily or tribe would be a more manageable size. The third, informal group report gives you the 
chance to examine and test some controversial biogeographic idea.
Class time structure	The usual class period will consist of introductory overview by me and discussion of the reading and lecture by everyone. 
						The discussion will usually be led by a pair of students, and will be informal. About half of each period will be my introduction 
						and half will be discussion.

Drops	You may drop by Casper during weeks 1 and 2. You need permission from me and the Bio department chair to drop in weeks 3 and 4. After week 4, 
		through week 12, you may drop with a serious, compelling reason, for example, change in your work schedule, a health or family problem.	
Cheating in any form āF, possible expulsion. DonÕt do this to yourself! See catalog for gory details..
What you will learn This course covers descriptive, historical, theoretical and applied biogeography.
You will learn best 	reading, writing and arguing. Absorb yourself in the biogeography, evolution and ecology of your family.

Tentative course syllabus (with chapters from Brown and Lomolino 1998 and other sources)

Descriptive and historical biogeography
2Feb		Overview and History		(B&L1,2)
4Feb		Weather and climate		(B&L3)

8Feb		Species distribution		(B&L4)
10Feb		Community distributions	(B&L5)

15Feb		A Little Geology		(B&L6)
17Feb		Preview 1 student outlines due and discussion of papers

22Feb		The Quaternary		(B&L7)
24Feb		Distributions revisited		(B&L10)

29Feb		Phylogenetics			(B&L11)
2Mar		Biogeographic reconstruction	(B&L12)

7Mar		Report 1 due and student talks
9Mar		More student talks

Deeper look at the main processes of biogeography
14Mar 		Speciation 	(B&L8, Rice and Hostert 1993)
16Mar		Speciation 	(Barton 1998, Hollacher 1998, Grant and Grant 1998)

21Mar		Speciation 	(Craig et al. 1993, Patton and daSilva 1998)
23Mar		Preview 2 student outlines due and discussion of papers

28Mar		Extinction	(B&L8, May, Lawton and Stork 1995, Rosenzweig 1995)
30Mar		Extinction	(Foley 1994, Bond 1995)

4April		Dispersal	(B&L9, Carlquist 1974)
6April		Dispersal	(Baker 1984, Johnson and Gaines 1990, Stacey, Johnson and Taper 1997)

11April	Report 2 due and student talks
13April	More student talks 

18April and 20April	Spring recess. No class. Wander about outside!

Spatial ecology, biodiversity and conservation
25April	Island Biogeography and metapopulations 	(B&L13)
27April	More islands (Hanski 1999)

2May		More islands	(B&L14)
4May		Preview 3 student outlines and discussion of group projects

9May		Biodiversity patterns	(B&L15)
11May		More Biodiversity	(B&L16)

16May		Conservation biology appications	(B&L17)
18May		More conservation biology	(B&L18)

23May		Tues 5:15-7:15PM	Report 3 due and group talks

Biogeography Resources

Journal of Biogeography
Trends in Evolution and Ecology
American Naturalist
Conservation Biology
and many other journals

Web sites
Journal of Biogeography	http://www.blacksci.co.uk/~cgilib/jnlpage.bin?Journal=jbiog&File=jbiog&Page=contents.htm
Tree of Life	http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/tree/phylogeny.html
Biogeography Specialties Group  http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/2498/bsghome1.htm
NASA Earth Observatory	http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/
Charles Stuart University (AU) biogeographic links  http://www.csu.edu.au/landscape_ecology/landscape.html

Schools of biogeography (with some members, some of whom really belong in more than one school)
Natural Historian Zoogeographers: Georges Buffon, Charles Darwin, Philip Sclater, Alfred Russel 
Wallace, Miklos Udvardy, Philip Darlington, Jonathan Kingdon
(Buffon et al. 1749; Darlington 1957; Darlington 1965; Kingdon 1984; Kingdon 1989; Sclater 1858; Sclater and Sclater 1899; Udvardy 1969; Wallace 1876; Wallace 1880)
Vegetation geographers: Dieter Mueller-Dombois, Michael Barbour, David Brown
(Barbour and Billings 1988; Barbour and Major 1988; Brown 1994; Brown and Lowe 1978; Brown et al. 1998; Brown et al. 1973; Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg 1998)
Floristic phytogeographers: Alexander Humboldt, Stanley Cain, Ronald Good, Arthur Cronquist, Armen
Taktajan, Ledyard Stebbins, Ghillean Prance, Peter Raven, Jerzy Rzedowski, Daniel Axelrod, Robert
Thorne, Beryl Simpson
(Axelrod 1979; Cain 1944; Cronquist and New York Botanical Garden 1972; Good 1974; Humboldt and Bonpland 1805; Raven and Axelrod 1974; Raven and Axelrod 1978; Rzedowski ; 
	Rzedowski and Huerta M 1986; Simpson and Neff 1985; Stehli and Webb 1985; Takhtadzh*i*an et al. 1986; Thorne 1972; Thorne 1992; Whitmore and Prance 1987)
Macroevolution paleontologists: Steven Stanley, S. J. Gould, Niles Eldredge, Elizabeth Vrba
(Eldredge 1989a; Eldredge 1989b; Eldredge 1992; Stanley 1989; Stanley 1998; Vrba 1985)
Panbiogeographers: Leon Croizat, R. C. Craw, John Grehan
	(Craw et al. 1999; Croizat 1958; Croizat 1962; Croizat 1952)
Cladistic/vicariance biogeographers: Willi Hennig, Joel Cracraft, Christopher Humphries, Gareth Nelson, 
Norman Platnick, Brian Rosen
	(Cracraft and Eldredge 1979; Hennig 1966; Humphries and Parenti 1999; Nelson and Platnick 1981)
Systematist/phylogenetic biogeographers: Carolus Linnaeus, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Charles Sibley, Hamp
Carson, Bruce Baldwin, Thomas Givnish, Charles Michener, Keith Brown, William Duellman
(Baldwin 1989; Duellman 1999; Givnish and Sytsma 1997; Michener 1979; Myers and Giller 1988; Sibley and Ahlquist 1990; Sibley and Monroe 1990)
Island biogeographers: David Lack, Robert MacArthur, E. O. Wilson, Jim Brown, Jared Diamond, 
Ted Case, Daniel Simberloff, Peter Grant, Sherwin Carlquist, R. J. Whittaker
(Brown 1978; Brown 1995; Brown and Gibson 1983; Brown and Kodric-Brown 1977; Brown and Lomolino 1998; Carlquist 1974; Case et al. 1998; Case and Cody 1983; Diamond 1975; 
	Diamond 1984; Diamond and May 1976; Grant and Grant 1979; Grant 1999; Grant and Royal Society (Great Britain). Discussion Meeting 1998; Kuschel 1975; Lack 1966; MacArthur 1972; 
	MacArthur and Wilson 1963; MacArthur and Wilson 1967; Power 1980; Quammen 1996; Schoenherr et al. 1999; Simberloff 1978; Simberloff 1993; Simberloff 1995; Whittaker 1998)
Biodiversity puzzlers: Mike Rosenzweig, Jim Brown, Stuart Pimm, Evelyn Pielou, Robert Ricklefs, Bob May
(May 1973; May et al. 1995; Pielou 1979; Pimm 1991; Ricklefs and Schluter 1993; Rosenzweig 1995; Wilson 1996; Wilson et al. 1988)
Metapopulationist biologists: Richard Levins, Michael Gilpin, Ilkka Hanski, Chris Thomas, Susan Harrison,
Russell Lande, Andrew Taylor, Patrick Foley, Paul Beier
(Beier 1995; Beier 1996; Foley et al. 1999; Foley 1994; Foley 1997; Foley 2000; Gilpin and Hanski 1991; Gilpin 1990; Gilpin and Diamond 1976; Gilpin and Diamond 1981; 
	Gilpin and Soule 1986; Hanski 1999; Hanski et al. 1996; Hanski et al. 1994; Hanski and Gilpin 1997; Harrison 1991; Harrison et al. 1988; Harrison and Quinn 1989; Harrison et al. 1995; 
	Lande 1993; Lande 1995; Lande et al. 1998; Lande 1988; Levins 1969; Levins 1970; Taylor 1991; Taylor 1990; Thomas 1991; Thomas et al. 1996; Thomas et al. 1994)
Spatial modelers: J. D. Murray, Simon Levin, A. D. Cliff, Alan Hastings, J. Bascompte, R. Sole
(Bascompte and Sole 1995; Cliff 1981; Cliff and Haggett 1988; Hastings 1977; Hastings 1990; Hastings 1996; Hastings et al. 1997; Murray 1993)
Spatial ecologists: Charles Elton, Peter Kareiva, Peter Turchin, Stephen Pacala, Ron Pulliam, John Wiens, David 
Tilman, Thomas Schoener, Richard Bierregaard
(Elton 1958; Kareiva 1989; Kareiva and Tilman 1997; Kareiva and Wennergren 1995; Laurance and Bierregaard 1997; Pulliam 1988; Pulliam 1997; Schoener 1991; Schoener and Spiller 1995)
Animal dispersal researchers: V. C. Wynn-Edwards, Robin Baker, Hugh Dingle
	(Baker 1978; Dingle 1978; Dingle 1996; Wynne-Edwards 1962)
Speciation researchers: Ernst Mayr, Michael White, Guy Bush, Nick Barton, Alan Templeton, John Endler
(Barton 1996; Barton and Wilson 1995; Endler 1977; Howard and Berlocher 1998; Lambert and Spencer 1995; Mayr 1963; Otte and Endler 1989; White 1978; White et al. 1981)
Population geneticist/evolutionists: Sewall Wright, Motoo Kimura, Takeo Maruyama, John Avise, 
Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Donald Levin, Julian Huxley, Edgar Anderson, Clausen, Keck and Hiesey, G. Gaylord Simpson, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Verne Grant, Monty Slatkin
(Avise 1994; Avise 2000; Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994; Clausen 1940; Dobzhansky 1937; Grant 1981; Maruyama 1977; Simpson 1953a; Simpson 1953b; Simpson 1956; Simpson 1965; 
	Slatkin 1993; Slatkin 1994a; Slatkin 1994b; Slatkin 1995; Slatkin 1996; Slatkin and Wiehe 1998; Wright and Provine 1986)
Landscape ecologists: Monica Turner, Robert Gardner
	(Turner and Gardner 1991)
Wildlands/conservationists: Dave Foreman, Reed Noss, Blair Csuti, Dan Doak
	(Foreman and Wolke 1992; Noss and Cooperrider 1994; Noss et al. 1995; Noss et al. 1997)
Climatologists: H. H. Lamb, Stephen Schneider
	(Lamb 1985; Lamb 1995; Schneider and Londer 1984)
Paleoecology: Hazel and Paul Delcourt, Paul Martin
	(Delcourt and Delcourt 1991; Delcourt and Delcourt 1987; Martin and Klein 1984)
Ethnobiologists: Carl and Jonathon Sauer, Alfred Crosby
(Crosby 1994a; Crosby 1994b; Sauer 1969; Sauer 1975; Sauer 1988; Sauer 1993)

Some important biogeography literature
Avise, J. C. 1994. Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. Chapman & Hall, London.
Avise, J. C. 2000. Phylogeography : the history and formation of species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
Axelrod, D. I. 1979. Age and origin of Sonoran Desert vegetation. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
Baker, R. R. 1978. The Evolutionary Ecology of Animal Migration. Holmes & Meier, New York.
Baldwin, B. G. 1989. Chloroplast DNA phylogenetics and biosystematic studies in Madiinae (Asteraceae), pp. 142 leaves,, Davis, Calif.
Barbour, M. G., and W. D. Billings 1988. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York.
Barbour, M. G., and J. Major 1988. Terrestrial vegetation of California. California Native Plant Society, Davis, Calif.
Barton, N. H.  1996. Natural selection and random genetic drift as causes of evolution on islands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 351: 785-795.
Barton, N. H., and I. Wilson  1995. Genealogies and geography. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 349: 49-59.
Bascompte, J., and R. Sole  1995. Rethinking complexity: modelling spatiotenporal dynamics in ecology. TREE 10: 361-366.
Beier, P.  1995. Dispersal of juvenile cougars in fragmented habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management 59: 228-237.
Beier, P. 1996. Metapopulation models, tenacious tracking, and cougar conservation, pp. 293-323 in Metapopulations and wildlife conservation; First Annual Meeting of the Wildlife Society, 
	Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, September 22, 1994, edited by D. R. McCullough. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
Brown, D. E. 1994. Biotic communities : southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Brown, D. E., and C. H. Lowe 1978. Biotic communities of the Southwest, pp. . Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station USDA Forest Service, Ft. Collins, Colo.
Brown, D. E., F. Reichenbacher and S. E. Franson 1998. A classification of North American biotic communities. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Brown, D. E., J. N. Theobald, V. Booth and Arizona Resources Information System 1973. The natural vegetative communities of Arizona. Arizona Resources Information System, Phoenix.
Brown, J.  1978. The theory of insular biogeography and the distribution of boreal birds and mammals. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 2: 209-227.
Brown, J. H. 1995. Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Brown, J. H., and A. C. Gibson 1983. Biogeography. Mosby, St. Louis.
Brown, J. H., and A. Kodric-Brown  1977. Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 58: 445-449.
Brown, J. H., and M. V. Lomolino 1998. Biogeography. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.
Buffon, G. L. L., G. L. C. A. Bexon, L. J. M. Daubenton, P. GuŽneau de Montbeillard and C. La 1749. Histoire naturelle, gŽnŽrale et particuliŽre, avec la description du cabinet du roy. L'Imprimerie royale, Paris,.
Cain, S. A. 1944. Foundations of plant geography. Harper & Brothers, New York, London,.
Carlquist, S. 1974. Island Biology. Columbia University Press, New York.
Case, T. J., D. T. Bolger and A. D. Richman 1998. Reptilian extinctions over the last ten thousand years, pp. 157-186 in Conservation biology, Second edition, edited by P. L. Fiedler, 
	and P. M. Kareiva. Chapman and Hall, Inc., New York, New York, USA; London, England, UK.
Case, T. J., and M. L. Cody 1983. Island biogeography in the Sea of CortŽz. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., P. Menozzi and A. Piazza 1994. The history and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Clausen, J. C. 1940. Experimental studies on the nature of species, Washington, D.C.,.
Cliff, A. D. 1981. Spatial diffusion : an historical geography of epidemics in an island community. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ; New York.
Cliff, A. D., and P. Haggett 1988. Atlas of disease distributions : analytic approaches to epidemiological data. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, UK ; New York, NY, USA.
Cracraft, J., and N. Eldredge 1979. Phylogenetic analysis and paleontology : proceedings of a symposium entitled "Phylogenetic models," convened at the North American Paleontological Convention II, 
	Lawrence, Kansas, August 8, 1977. Columbia University Press, New York.
Craw, R. C., J. R. Grehan and M. J. Heads 1999. Panbiogeography : tracking the history of life. Oxford University Press, New York.
Croizat, L. 1958. Panbiogeography; or, An introductory synthesis of zoogeography, phytogeography, and geology, with notes on evolution, systematics, ecology, anthropology, etc, Caracas,.
Croizat, L. 1962. Space, time, form: the biological synthesis, Caracas, Venezuela,.
Croizat, L. C. M. 1952. Manual of phytogeography; or, An account of plant-dispersal throughout the world. W. Junk, The Hague,.
Cronquist, A., and New York Botanical Garden 1972. Intermountain flora; vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Published for the New York Botanical Garden by Hafner Pub. Co., New York,.
Crosby, A. W. 1994a. Ecological imperialism : the biological expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York.
Crosby, A. W. 1994b. Germs, seeds & animals : studies in ecological history. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.
Darlington, P. J. 1957. Zoogeography: the geographical distribution of animals. Wiley, New York,.
Darlington, P. J. 1965. Biogeography of the southern end of the world; distribution and history of far-southern life and land, with an assessment of continental drift. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,.
Delcourt, H. R., and P. A. Delcourt 1991. Quaternary ecology : a paleoecological perspective. Chapman & Hall, London ; New York.
Delcourt, P. A., and H. R. Delcourt 1987. Long-term forest dynamics of the temperate zone : a case study of late-quaternary forests in eastern North America. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Diamond, J. M. 1975. Assembly of species communities, pp. 342-444 in Ecology and evolution of communities, edited by M. L. Cody, and J. M. Diamond. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Diamond, J. M. 1984. Normal extinctions of isolated populations, pp. 191-246, edited by M. H. Nitecki. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Diamond, J. M., and R. M. May 1976. Island biogeography and the design of natural reserves, pp.  in Theoretical Ecology, edited by R. M. May. Saunders, Philadelphia.
Dingle, H. 1978. Evolution of insect migration and diapause. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Dingle, H. 1996. Migration : the biology of life on the move. Oxford University Press, New York.
Dobzhansky, T. G. 1937. Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New York,.
Duellman, W. E. 1999. Patterns of distribution of amphibians : a global perspective. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Eldredge, N. 1989a. Macroevolutionary dynamics : species, niches, and adaptive peaks. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Eldredge, N. 1989b. Time frames : the evolution of punctuated equilibra. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Eldredge, N. 1992. The miner's canary : unravelling the mysteries of extinction. Virgin, London.
Elton, C. S. 1958. The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. Methuen, London,.
Endler, J. A. 1977. Geographic variation, speciation, and clines. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Foley, J. E., P. Foley and N. C. Pedersen  1999. The persistence of a SIS disease in a metapopulation. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 555-563.
Foley, P.  1994. Predicting extinction times from environmental stochasticity and carrying capacity. Conservation Biology 8: 124-137.
Foley, P. 1997. Extinction models for local populations, pp. 215-246 in Metapopulation Biology, edited by I. Hanski, and M. Gilpin. Academic Press, New York.
Foley, P.  2000. Problems in extinction model selection and parameter estimation. Environmental Management .
Foreman, D., and H. Wolke 1992. The big outside : a descriptive inventory of the big wilderness areas of the United States. Harmony Books, New York.
Gilpin, M., and I. Hanski (Editors) 1991. Metapopulation Dynamics. Academic Press, London.
Gilpin, M. E. 1990. Extinction in finite metapopulations in correlated environments, pp. 177-186 in Living in Patchy Environments, edited by B. Shorrocks, and I. Swingland. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Gilpin, M. E., and J. M. Diamond  1976. Calculation of immigration and extinction curves from the species-area-distance relation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 73: 4130-4134.
Gilpin, M. E., and J. M. P. U. Diamond, 392-396.  1981.  Immigration and extinction probabilities for individual species: relation to incidence functions and species colonization curves. Proceedings of the 
	National Academy of Science(USA) 78: 392-396.
Gilpin, M. E., and M. E. Soule 1986. Minimum viable populations: processes of species extinction, pp. 19-34 in Conservation Biology: the sciences of scarcity and diversity, edited by M. E. Soule. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Givnish, T. J., and K. J. Sytsma 1997. Molecular evolution and adaptive radiation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. ; New York, NY, USA.
Good, R. 1974. The geography of the flowering plants. Longman, London.
Grant, B. R., and P. R. Grant 1979. Evolutionary Dynamics of a Natural Population: the large cactus finch of the Galapagos. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Grant, P. R. 1999. Ecology and evolution of Darwin's finches. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Grant, P. R., and Royal Society (Great Britain). Discussion Meeting 1998. Evolution on islands. Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York.
Grant, V. 1981. Plant speciation. Columbia University Press, New York.
Hanski, I. 1999. Metapopulation ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York.
Hanski, I., P. Foley and M. Hassell  1996. Random walks in a metapopulation: How much density dependence is necessary for long-term persistence? Journal of Animal Ecology 65: 274-282.
Hanski, I., M. Kuussaari and M. Nieminen  1994. Metapopulation structure and migration in the butterfly Melitaea cinxia. Ecology (Tempe) 75: 747-762.
Hanski, I. A., and M. E. Gilpin (Editors) 1997. Metapopulation Biology. Academic Press, San Diego.
Harrison, S. 1991. Local extinction in a metapopulation context: an empirical evaluation, pp. 73-88 in Metapopulation Dynamics, edited by M. Gilpin, and I. Hanski. Academic Press, London.
Harrison, S., D. D. Murphy and P. R. Ehrlich  1988. Distribution of the bay area checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha bayensis: evidence for a metapopulation model. American Naturalist 132: 360-382.
Harrison, S., and J. F. Quinn  1989. Correlated environments and the persistence of metapopulations. Oikos 56: 293-298.
Harrison, S., C. D. Thomas and T. M. Lewinsohn  1995. Testing a metapopulation model of coexistence in the insect community on ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). American Naturalist 145: 546-562.
Hastings, A.  1977. Spatial heterogeneity and the stability of predator-prey systems. Theoretical Population Biology 12: 37-48.
Hastings, A.  1990. Spatial heterogeneity and ecological models. Ecology 71: 426-428.
Hastings, A.  1996. Models of spatial spread: A synthesis. Biological Conservation 78: 143-148.
Hastings, A., S. Harrison and K. McCann  1997. Unexpected spatial patterns in an insect outbreak match a predator diffusion model. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences 264: 1837-1840.
Hennig, W. 1966. Phylogenetic systematics. University of Illinois Press, Urbana,.
Howard, D. J., and S. H. Berlocher 1998. Endless forms : species and speciation. Oxford University Press, New York.
Humboldt, A. v., and A. Bonpland 1805. Essai sur la gŽographie des plantes : accompagnŽ d'un tableau physique des rŽgions Žquinoxiales, fondŽ sur des mesures exŽcutŽes, depuis le dixime degrŽ de latitude 
	borŽale jusqu'au dixime degrŽ de latitude australe, pendant les annŽes 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802 et 1803. Chez Levrault Schoell et compagnie libraires, A Paris,.
Humphries, C. J., and L. R. Parenti 1999. Cladistic biogeography : interpreting patterns of plant and animal distributions. Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York.
Kareiva, P. 1989. Patchiness, dispersal, and species interactions: consequences for communities of herbivorous insects, pp. 192-206 in Community Ecology, edited by J. Diamond, and T. J. Case. Harper and Row, New York.
Kareiva, P., and D. Tilman  1997. Space: The final frontier and its outer limits. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 78: 18.
Kareiva, P., and U. Wennergren  1995. Connecting landscape patterns to ecosystem and population processes. Nature (London) 373: 299-302.
Kingdon, J. 1984. East African mammals : an atlas of evolution in Africa. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Kingdon, J. 1989. Island Africa : the evolution of Africa's rare animals and plants. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Kuschel, G. 1975. Biogeography and ecology in New Zealand. Junk, The Hague.
Lack, D. 1966. Population Studies of Birds. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Lamb, H. H. 1985. Climatic History and the Future. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Lamb, H. H. 1995. Climate, history, and the modern world. Routledge, London ; New York.
Lambert, D. M., and H. G. Spencer 1995. Speciation and the recognition concept : theory and application. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Lande, R.  1993. Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. American Naturalist 142: 911-927.
Lande, R.  1995. Mutation and conservation. Conservation Biology 9: 782-791.
Lande, R., S. Engen and B. E. Saether  1998. Extinction times in finite metapopulation models with stochastic local dynamics. Oikos 83: 383-389.
Lande, R. u.  1988.  Demographic models of the northern spotted owl. Oecologia 75: 601-607.
Laurance, W. F., and R. O. Bierregaard 1997. Tropical forest remnants : ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Levins, R.  1969. Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 15: 237-240.
Levins, R. 1970. Extinction, pp. 77-107 in Some Mathematical Problems in Biology, edited by M. Gerstenhaber. American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island.
MacArthur, R. H. 1972. Geographical ecology; patterns in the distribution of species. Harper & Row, New York,.
MacArthur, R. H., and E. O. Wilson  1963. An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17: 373-387.
MacArthur, R. H., and E. O. Wilson 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.,.
Martin, P. S., and R. G. Klein (Editors) 1984. Quaternary Extinctions a prehistoric revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Maruyama, T. 1977. Stochastic Problems in Population Genetics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
May, R. M. 1973. Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
May, R. M., J. H. Lawton and N. E. Stork 1995. Assessing extinction rates, pp. 1-24 in Extinction rates, edited by J. H. Lawton, and R. M. May. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA.
Mayr, E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge,.
Michener, C.  1979. Biogeography of the bees. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 66: 277-347.
Mueller-Dombois, D., and F. R. Fosberg 1998. Vegetation of the tropical Pacific islands. Springer, New York.
Murray, J. D. 1993. Mathematical Biology. Springer, New York.
Myers, A. A., and P. S. Giller 1988. Analytical biogeography : an integrated approach to the study of animal and plant distributions. Chapman and Hall, London ; New York.
Nelson, G. J., and N. I. Platnick 1981. Systematics and biogeography : cladistics and vicariance. Columbia University Press, New York.
Noss, R. F., and A. Y. Cooperrider 1994. Saving nature's legacy : protecting and restoring biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
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