Fall 2004                                             NAME____________________________________





MULTIPLE CHOICE:          Mark the correct answer. Only one answer is correct. (2 pts. each--50 pts.)


1.         The Voltziales

A.                 include Cordaites.

B.                 are called “transition conifers” because genera included in the group show stages in the evolution of the megastrobilus short shoot into the ovuliferous scale of conifers.

C.                 have microstrobili composed of a long shoot with spirally arranged bracts with axillary short shoots with scales that bear microsporangia.

D.                 have broad leaves that resemble those of Podocarpus.


2.         The Pentoxylales resemble other plant types in several different ways. Which of the following is not one of these?

            A.        The Pentoxylales produced leaves on short shoots like Ginkgo.

            B.         The Pentoxylales had a polystele like Medullosa-type pteridosperms.

            C.        The Pentoxylales had needle-like leaves like extant conifers.

D.        The Pentoxylales had seeds with two integuments like angiosperms. (The Pentoxylales’ outer integument is sometimes interpreted as a cupule.)


3.         The Mesozoic fern, Tempskya, is unusual because it

A.        had a false stem composed of a branched stem surrounded by a root mantle.

B.         had sporangia with a terminal annulus, a feature found in extant ferns of the Osmundaceae.

C.        had eusporangia, a feature found Psaronius but no extant ferns.

D.        had secondary growth and reached tree fern size.


4.         The coniferophyte characteristics of Ginkgo include all of the following except

A.        highly branched stems.

B.         pollen produced in simple cones (microstrobili).

C.        large seeds produced on modified leaves.

D.        picnoxylic wood.


5.         The first angiosperms were

A.        large canopy trees.

B.         herbaceous plants that grew on gymnosperm-dominated woodlands.

C.        small trees growing in upland areas.

D.        weedy plants growing in flood plains.


6.         Both sauropod dinosaurs and hadrosaur dinosaurs

A.                 used gastroliths (stomach stones) to grind up ingested food.

B.                 had elaborate crests on their heads that were used in amplifying calls.

C.                 were herbivorous.

D.                 had beaks and strong teeth for ingesting and processing food.


7.         Conifers in the Pinaceae (includes pine, spruce, fir, etc.)

A.                 evolved in and are found only in the Northern Hemisphere.

B.                 lack a compound megastrobilus and produce seeds that are enclosed in a fleshy aril and are produced singly on a stalk.

C.                 have megastrobili  (seed cones) that have large bracts and much smaller ovuliferous scales.

D.                 is the most ancient conifer family and evolved in the early Triassic.


8.         Which of the following plants were not present in the Permian?

A.                  ferns in the Family Osmundaceae

B.                  Sequoia

C.                  Cordaites

D.                  the sphenopsid, Phyllotheca


9.         In the middle Cretaceous, flowers

A.                 included both large, insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers arranged in catkins.

B.                 were all large and insect pollinated.

C.                 consisted only of small, unisexual flowers in the Family Chloranthaceae.

D.                 were not yet present in the fossil record.


10.       Of the biomes present in the Permian,

A.                 the cold temperate biome present at or near the poles included deciduous plants such Glossopteris.

B.                 the tropical everwet biome was very extensive, was found worldwide at the equator, and included mostly members of the Bennettitales.

C.                 the warm temperate biome was limited to what is now China and included plants such as Calamites and Lepidodendron.

D.                 the subtropical desert biome included Ephedra and the first angiosperms.


11.       Which of the following is not true of pulsation tectonics?

A.                 Pulsation tectonics events coincide with the times in which new plant groups evolved.

B.                 Pulsation tectonics describes the movement of continental plates: times of little movement alternating with pulses during which much movement occurs.

C.                 Pulsation tectonics produced geological phenomena such increased volcanism resulting in higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

D.                 Pulsation tectonics events coincide with all mass extinctions of animals.


12.       Mesozoic cycads such as Beania had

A.                 compact megastrobili in which the megasporophylls completely enclosed and protected the seeds.

B.                 bisaccate pollen (pollen with two wings or air bladders).

C.                 highly dissected compound leaves with distinct leaflets.

D.                 microstrobili that resemble those of extant cycads.


13.       Glossopteris

A.                 had simple leaves with net venation.

B.                 produced seeds in complex megastrobili resembling those of conifers.

C.                 grew in both Gondwana and Angara.

D.                 stems had secondary growth but the secondary xylem lacked growth rings.


14.       The leaves and pollen of the Cretaceous Potomac Group indicate that during the

A.                 Aptian-Albian,  tricolpate, tricolporate and triporate angiosperm pollen was present.

B.                 Barremian, leaves of the Juglandaceae were the most common leaf type.

C.                 Cenomanian, only very primitive leaves such as those of the Chloranthaceae, Winteraceae, and Piperaceae were present.

D.                 Barremian, only monosulcate pollen was present.


15.       In the late Cretaceous,

A.                  the continents were still arranged in a single super-continent called Pangea.

B.                  the angiosperms were an important part of all biomes but one.

C.                  world climates were the warmest they had ever been and extensive areas of tropical rainforests were present.

D.                  the continents were in their present-day locations.


16.       Which of the following is not an example of a proposed pre-Cretaceous angiosperm?

A.                 Furcula, a lobed leaf with complex net venation

B.                 Lirophyllum, a flower resembling the flowers of the tulip tree, Liriodendron

C.                 Eucommiidites, pollen with angiosperm characteristics

D.        Sanmiguelia, a leaf resembling palm leaves


17.       Multituberculate mammals were

A.        large Eocene animals that grazed on grasses.

B.         tree-dwelling Paleocene mammals that ate the fruit of angiosperms.

C.        Triassic and Jurassic mammals that ate insects and small reptiles.

D.        Eocene primates.


18.       The leaves of the cycads and Bennittitales

A.        can be distinguished from one another because those of the cycads had haplocheilic stomata and those of the Bennittitales had syndetocheilic stomata.

B.         both consisted of simple, strap-shaped leaves with parallel venation.

C.        cannot be distinguished from one another because early in the Mesozoic both types of plants had simple leaves and later in the Mesozoic both developed pinnately compound leaves with distinct leaflets.

D.        can be distinguished because all cycads have pinnately compound leaves with distinct leaflets and all the Bennettitales have simple leaves.


19.       Among the Mesozoic ginkgophytes,

A.        Sphenobaiera has simple, wedge-shaped leaves with distinct petioles.

B.         Ginkgoites leaves are those that resemble leaves of Ginkgo but can be distinguished from true Ginkgo leaves.

C.        Baiera has highly dissected leaves and lacks petioles.

            D.        no Ginkgo species were present.


20.       Conifers in the Taxodiaceae (includes Sequoia, Taxodium, Sequoiadendron)

A.        first appeared in the early Tertiary.

B.         evolved in Gondwana and are present today only on the southern hemisphere continents.

C.        have megastrobili in which the bracts and ovuliferous scales are approximately the same size and are fused to one another.

D.        all have a limited distribution today, and this has always been the case for these plants.


21.       Which of the following is not true of the anthophyte hypothesis?

A.        The angiosperms evolved directly from a member of the Gnetophyta.

B.         The hypothetical ancestor of the anthophytes had bisexual reproductive structures with complex microsporophylls and megasporophylls.

C.        In the angiosperms, the megasporophylls of the hypothetical ancestor evolved to enclosed the ovules and the microsporophylls were reduced to simple structures.

D.        The Gnetales evolved directly from the Bennettitales.


22.       Glossopteris and angiosperms both have  

A.        ovules with two integuments.

B.         wood with vessels

C.        leaves with net venation

D.        ovules completely enclosed within megasporophylls called a carpel.


23.       Which of the following has not been suggested as the ancestor of the angiosperms?

A.        the Bennetitales

B.         the Gnetophyta

C.        the ginkgophytes

D.        the Pentoxylales           


24.       The “flowers” of the Bennititales

A.        were all bisexual.

B.         had ovules attached to dome-shaped receptacles.

C.        were all wind pollinated.

D.        had simple microsporophylls with four microsporangia.


25.       Many Mesozoic plants had structures that protected the ovules. Which of the following is not an example of this?

A.        The Czekanowskiales produced ovules within a “clam shell-like” structure that enclosed the ovules.

B.         The Corystospermaceae produce ovules within cupules that may have been fleshy.

C.        The Cheirolepidiaceae had fleshy megasporophylls that enclosed the ovules.

D.        The Bennetitales had ovules that were surrounded and protected by interseminal scales.



TRUE/FALSE:           Write T or F in the blank preceding each question.

(2 pts. each—20 pts.)


T or F


_____  1.  Ginkgo biloba first appeared in the Permian.

_____ 2.   Plants in the Order Bennettitales have girdling leaf traces.


_____ 3.   Mesozoic ferns included members of the Families Osmundaceae, Gleicheniaceae, and Matoniaceae, three groups that also include extant ferns.


_____  4.   Only angiosperms have vessels, insect pollination, and double fertilization.

_____  5.   The Family Cheirolepidiaceae is a group of conifers that also includes extant members.

_____  6.   Mammals first arose during the Cretaceous and were contemporaries of Cretaceous dinosaurs.

_____  8.   Recent cladograms based on molecular biology support the hypothesis that the Gnetales are more closely related to the angiosperms than to the conifers.

_____  9.   Metasequoia is an unusual plant both because it was first described as a fossil and later found alive and because it is a deciduous conifer while most conifers are evergreen.

_____10.   Angiosperms arose late in the history of the planet because they coevolved with insect pollinators that did not evolve until the Cretaceous.



SHORT ANSWER: Write the answer below each question. Use complete sentences. Limit your answer to one paragraph.  If you include a diagram, label it and explain it in words using complete sentences. (30 pts. The point value for each question varies and is indicated after each question.)


1.         When they were first discovered, the Caytoniales were described as angiosperms. What are two angiosperm-like characteristics the Caytoniales have? What are two ways they are unlike angiosperm? Describe two hypothetical evolutionary steps proposed by J. Doyle in 1978 that would result in the Caytoniales being more “angiosperm-like.” (12 pts.)





2.         Some botanists have proposed a hypothesis that Isoetes is the last remnant of a reduction sequence that extends from Carboniferous lycopods to the extant genus Isoetes. What evidence supports this hypothesis? (8 pts.)






3.         The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary is a time of major transition in the history of the earth. What hypothesis was presented in lecture regarding what occurred to produce this major transition? What evidence, if any, supports the hypothesis? Describe two climatic/environmental changes resulted from the occurrence? What effect did the occurrence have on animals? What effect, if any, did the occurrence have on plants? (10 pts.)