Chapter 6: Basic Motivation Concepts
What is Motivation?
Note: the goal is an “organizational” goal
Some Key Points: Motivation is not directly observable (it is internal to each employee), it is personal (what is arousing differs and how behavior is directed is often different), however the process is common and it is goal directed.
Early Theories of Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs (a.k.a. Maslow's Pyramid)
Note: An individual moves “up the steps” of the hierarchy. “Lower order” needs are satisfied externally (i.e. physiological and safety) while “higher order” needs are satisfied internally (i.e. social, esteem, and self-actualization).
Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically
negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y.
McGregor believed Theory Y assumptions were more valid than Theory X and proposed such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations as approaches that would maximize an employee's motivation.
= what type of manager will you be (or are you)? One who believes in Theory
X or Theory Y? Be honest! Do you think this is important? Why? Why not?
Do you think this is important? Why? Why not?
• Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction.
• Hygiene factors = when these are adequate, workers “feel OK” (i.e. they are NOT dissatisfied). Examples include quality of supervision, company policies and administration.
• Motivators = examines factors contributing to job satisfaction. Thus there are factors which lead to job satisfaction and things that don’t (i.e. notice there is a difference between “non-satisfying” and “dissatisfying factors”)
McClelland's Theory of Needs
Question: What can we do with this information? Answer: Match people to jobs!
Those high on "achievement" tend to prefer jobs with personal responsibility, feedback and moderate risks. They DO NOT always care about motivating others!
In general, individuals high on the need for "Power" and low on the need for "Affiliation" tend to perform better in managerial roles.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
• Allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation.
Goal -Setting Theory
• Be sure to note the importance of goal commitment, self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture on goal-setting theory.
Management by Objectives ("MBO")
This approach puts goal setting to work.
It is a program that encompasses:
MBO operationalizes the concept of objectives by devising a process by which objectives cascade down through the organization.
The result is a hierarchy of objectives that links objectives at one level to those at the next level.
For the individual employee, MBO provides specific personal performance objectives.
Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task.
distributive justice or the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. However, equity should also consider procedural justice or the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards. Interactional justice is also important.
*Question: So, what happens when your pay is “inequitable”?
Don’t Forget Ability and
= f (Ability X Motivation X
Question: Think about how the fundamental attribution error can lead you astray in terms of “understanding” others’ behavior in the workplace. How do ability, motivation, and opportunity influence YOUR perceptions of workplace behavior?)
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation
• First, consider employees’ opportunity, ability and the “purpose” or objectives of the current performance evaluation system in which they work. Then, consider the link between individual effort – individual performance – organizational rewards and personal goals. Each link can be influenced by a variety of factors (i.e. needs, reinforcement, equity)
Motivation Theories are Culture Bound
Note that most theories were developed in the
Summary and Implications for Managers
- Focus on performance variables
- It is a “rational” model so be careful when using it
- This theory may be better applied to employees with greater discretion in their jobs (i.e., as opposed to semi-skilled positions)