Auditory Perception -- Hearing


Auditory Stimulus:

sound wave: a pattern of successive pressure disturbances occurring in a medium like air or water



e.g. stereo speaker-



Anatomy of the Ear:



Outer Ear:








Middle Ear: -- separates outer ear (air medium) and inner ear (liquid medium)


1. malleus (hammer)

2. incus (anvil)

3. stapes (stirrup)







Inner Ear:






Pitch Perception:




Loudness Perception:


Sound Localization: -- how do we determine which direction a sound is coming from?









Chemical Senses (Taste and Smell)



Smell (Olfaction)

Stimulus: airborne molecules or vapors



















Taste (Gustation) -

Stimulus: any substance/chemical that dissolves in saliva.

















Taste Thresholds and Tongue Regions: all areas on tongue respond to all flavors (except middle which is like the "blind spot")--but certain flavors are more noticeable on certain areas.









Cutaneous Perception






Density of Nerve Fibers:





Two-point thresholds: the smallest distance of two separate points of stimulation on skin that just produces the perception of 2 distinct points.


Touch linked with kinesthesis and proprioception.