Toran D. MacLeod

  • Contact Information

  • Title: Assistant Professor
  • Office Location: Folsom Hall 1054
  • Office Hours: Summer Session: by appointment
  • E-mail: toran.macleod@csus.edu
  • Office Phone: (916) 278-5445
  • Mailing Address: Sacramento State 6000 J Street Sacramento, CA 95819-6020
  • Where to find me: Folsom Hall 1054

Biography

Toran MacLeod, PT, PhD is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physical Therapy at CSU Sacramento. Dr. MacLeod obtained his BS in Kinesiology from San Jose State University in 2000, his MS in Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics from California State University Sacramento in 2005, and he received his MPT in Physical Therapy from CSU Sacramento in 2008. He earned his PhD in Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics from the University of Delaware in 2011. He completed his training with a postdoc at UCSF in the Department of Radiology with the quantitative imaging group. There he was awarded an NIH grant to study meniscal kinematics and their relationships to knee osteoarthritis.

Dr. MacLeod’s research interests are founded within a musculoskeletal clinical perspective. He has regularly worked as a physical therapist since graduating from CSU Sacramento. As a clinician-scientist he examines the relationships between biomechanics and quantitative imaging. He has 18 published articles, and he has contributed 22 peer-reviewed papers.

Professional Interests:

Knee injury mechanics, ACL, rehabilitation, lower extremity biomechanics, injury prevention, osteoarthritis, medical imaging, meniscus, motion analysis, quantitative imaging

Education and Training:

• Bachelor of Science: San Jose State University - Exercise Science

• Masters of Science: California State University Sacramento – Exercise Physiology & Biomechanics

• Masters of Physical Therapy: California State University Sacramento - Physical Therapy

• Doctor of Philosophy: University of Delaware – Applied Anatomy & Biomechanics

• Postdoctoral Fellow: University of California, San Francisco - Biomedical Imaging

Teaching

Fall

Spring

  • PT 622: Evidence Informed Practice II
  • PT 604: Principles of Human Movement

Summer

  • PT 634: Diagnostic Imaging

Scholarship

For my most up to date scholarly work, please visit google scholar.

Peer Reviewed Publications:

  1. MacLeod TD, Subburaj K, Wu S, Kumar D, Wyatt S, Souza RB (2015). Magnetic resonance analysis of loaded meniscus kinematics: a novel technique comparing persons with and without radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Skeletal Radiology. 44(1):125-35.DOI: 10.1007/s00256-014-2022-3. View in: PubMed
  2. Kumar D, MacLeod TD, Subburaj K, Singh J, Calixto NE, Li X, Link TM, Majumdar S, Souza RB (2014). Quadriceps intramuscular fat fraction rather than muscle size is associated with knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 22(2), 226-234. View in: PubMed
  3. MacLeod TD, Snyder-Mackler L, Buchanan TS (2014). Differences in neuromuscular control and quadriceps morphology between potential copers from non-copers following anterior cruciate ligament injury. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 44(2), 76-84. View in: PubMed
  4. MacLeod TD, Hreljac A, Imamura R (2014). Changes in the preferred transition speed with added mass to the foot. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 30(1), 95-103. View in: PubMed
  5. MacLeod TD, Manal K, Silbernagel KG, Snyder-Mackler L, Buchanan TS (2013). Characteristics of human knee muscle coordination during isometric contractions in a standing posture: the effect of limb task. Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, 23(6), 1398-1405. View in: PubMed
  6. MacLeod TD, Snyder-Mackler L, Axe MJ, Buchanan TS (2013). Early regeneration determines long term graft site morphology and function after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with semitendinosus-gracilis autograft. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 8(3), 256. View in: PubMed
  7. Escamilla RF, MacLeod TD, Wilk KE, Paulos L, Andrews JR (2012). Cruciate ligament loading during common knee rehabilitation exercises. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 226(9), 670-80. View in: PubMed
  8. Escamilla RF, MacLeod TD, Wilk KE, Paulos L, Andrews JR (2012). ACL strain and tensile forces for weight bearing and non-weight bearing exercises: A guide to exercise selection. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 45(3), 208-20. View in: PubMed
  9. Shao Q, MacLeod TD, Manal K, Buchanan TS (2010). Estimation of ligament loading and anterior tibial translation in healthy and ACL-deficient knees during gait and the influence of increasing tibial slope using EMG-driven approach. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1-12. View in: Pubmed
  10. Escamilla RF, Zheng N, MacLeod TD, Imamura R, Edwards W, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT (2010). Cruciate ligament forces between a short and long step forward lunge. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 40(2), 1932-42. View in: PubMed
  11. +Di Stasi SL, +MacLeod TD, +Winters JD, Binder-Macleod SA (2010). Effects of statins on skeletal muscle: a perspective for physical therapists. Physical Therapy, 90(10), 1530-42. (+ equal contribution first author) View in: PubMed
  12. Escamilla RF, Zheng N, MacLeod TD, Imamura R, Edwards W, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT (2010) Cruciate ligament tensile forces during the forward and side lunge. Clinical Biomechanics. 25(3), 213-21. View in: PubMed
  13. Escamilla RF, Zheng N, MacLeod TD, Edwards W, Imamura R, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT, Andrews JR (2009). Patellofemoral joint force and stress during the wall squat and one-leg squat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 41(4), 879-88. View in: PubMed
  14. Escamilla RF, Zheng N, Imamura R, MacLeod TD, Edwards W, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT, Andrews JR (2009). Cruciate ligament force during the wall squat and one-leg squat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 41 (2), 408-17. View in: PubMed
  15. Escamilla RF, Zheng N, MacLeod TD, Edwards W, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT, Andrews JR, Imamura R (2008). Patellofemoral joint force and stress between a short- and long-step forward lunge. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sport Physical Therapy. 38(11), 681-90. View in: PubMed
  16. Escamilla RF, Zheng N, MacLeod TD, Edwards W, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT, Imamura R (2008). Patellofemoral compressive force and stress during the forward and side lunges with and without a stride. Clinical Biomechanics 23(8), .1026-37. View in: PubMed
  17. Hreljac A, Imamura RT, Escamilla RF, Edwards WB, MacLeod T (2008). The relationship between joint kinetic factors and the walk–run gait transition speed during human locomotion. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 24(2), 149-57. View in: PubMed
  18. Wong, N, Mark, B, Chen, X, Furch, T (maiden name), Singmaster, KA, Wagenkecht, P (2001). Preparation and use of a room-temperature catalytic converter. Journal of Chemical Education 78(12), 1665-6.
  19. Garizi, N, Macias, A, Furch, T (maiden name), Fan, R, Wagenkecht, P, Singmaster, KA (2001). Cigarette smoke analysis using an inexpensive gas-phase IR cell. Journal of Chemical Education 78(12), 1665-6.

Abstracts

Peer Reviewed Scientific and Professional Presentations:

  1. MacLeod (presenter), Majumdar, Souza. Mensicus volume in persons with and without radiographic knee osteoarthritis. American Physical Therapy Association, APTA Combined Sections Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, February 4-7, 2015.
  2. Fleisig, Leddon, Laughlin, Cicotti, Mandelbaum, Aune, Escamilla, MacLeod (presenter), Andrews. Biomechanical performance of baseball pitchers with history of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction. American Physical Therapy Association, APTA Combined Sections Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, February 4-7, 2015.
  3. Teng, MacLeod, Link, Majumdar, Souza. Individuals with Isolated Patellofemoral Joint Osteoarthritis Exhibit Higher Mechanical Loading at the Knee during the Second Half of the Gait Cycle. Proceedings form the 2015 Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, Indianapolis, IN, February 4-7, 2015.
  4. Teng, MacLeod, Link, Majumdar, Souza. Higher Knee Extensor Moment during the Second Half of the Gait Cycle is Associated with Progression of Patellofemoral Joint Osteoarthritis at One Year. Proceedings form the 2015 Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, Indianapolis, IN, February 4-7, 2015.
  5. Kumar (presenter), MacLeod, Subburaj, Singh, Calixto, Li, Link, Majumdar, Souza. Walking knee loads show opposite association with cartilage composition in people with osteoarthritis compared to young healthy subjects. Osteoarthritis Research Society International, Annual meeting, Paris, France, April 24-27, 2014.
  6. MacLeod (presenter), Wu, Feeley, Allen, Souza. Effects of meniscectomy on knee articulate cartilage T1rho and T2. Gordon Research Conference. Andover, NH, August 5-7, 2012.
  7. MacLeod (presenter), Manal, Snyder-Mackler, Buchanan. Attentional demand and limb task may affect quadriceps femoris neuromuscular control in anterior cruciate ligament injured non-copers. International Society of Biomechanics, Brussels, Belgium. July 3 -7, 2011.
  8. MacLeod (presenter), Snyder-Mackler, Manal, Buchanan. Specificity of the muscles about the knee during a static standing task: the unique synergy between the vasti and hamstrings. Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, CBER, Newark, DE. May 7, 2010.
  9. MacLeod (presenter) & Buchanan. Lower extremity coordination during static stance: the unique role of the vasti muscles. American College of Sports Medicine, ACSM, Annual meeting, Baltimore, MD, June 2-5, 2010.
  10. MacLeod, Chimera, Castro, Manal, Buchanan. Surgical recession of the gastrocnemius does not change plantar flexion moments. American College of Sports Medicine, ACSM, Annual meeting, Seattle, WA, May 27, 2009.

Abstracts:

  1. Teng, MacLeod, Majumdar, Souza. Diminished Quadriceps Strength is Associated with Increased Knee Adduction Moment during Walking at One-year Follow-up. Proceedings of the California Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference, Oakland, California, USA, 2014
  2. Romero, Keller, Kumar, Hoppe, Liu, MacLeod, Souza. Six minute walk test in patients with radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cohort cross-sectional study. California Physical Therapy Association, CPTA Annual Conference, Pasadena, CA, September 20-21, 2013.
  3. Abramson E, Hoppe M, MacLeod, Nardo L, Rivoire J, Souza R, Link TM, Ma BC, Li X. MR T1rho and T2 of meniscus after acute anterior cruciate ligament injuries. American College of Rheumatology Annual meeting, San Diego, CA, October 25-30, 2013
  4. MacLeod, Kumar, Subburaj, Wu, Li, Link, Majumdar, Souza. Magnetic resonance analysis of loaded meniscus kinematics and tibiofemoral contact area. American Physical Therapy Association, APTA Combined Sections Meeting, San Diego, CA, January 22-24, 2013.
  5. Lanier, MacLeod, Manal, Buchanan. Are internal-external rotational moments in ACL deficient subjects different than those in healthy subjects? American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Gainesville, FL, August 15-18, 2012.
  6. MacLeod, Snyder-Mackler, Axe, Buchanan. Neuromuscular control not quadriceps size differentiates potential copers from non-copers after ACL injury. Orthopedic Research Society, ORS, San Francisco, February 4-7, 2012.
  7. MacLeod, Snyder-Mackler, Axe, Buchanan. Muscle and tendon morphology after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: the effect of graft harvest. Orthopedic Research Society, ORS, Long Beach, CA, January 13-16, 2011.
  8. MacLeod, Manal, Snyder-Mackler, Buchanan. Altered neuromuscular control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. American Physical Therapy Association, APTA Combined Sections Meeting, New Orleans, LA, February 9-12, 2011.
  9. Macleod, Manal, Snyder-Mackler, Buchanan. Altered neuromuscular control after anterior cruciate ligament injury. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Long Beach, CA, August 10-13, 2011.
  10. Shao, MacLeod, Manal, Buchanan. Comparison of ligament loading and anterior tibial translation in healthy and ACL-deficient knees during gait. Orthopedic Research Society, ORS, New Orleans, LA, March 6-9, 2010.
  11. MacLeod, Snyder-Mackler, Axe, Buchanan. Long-term follow-up of muscle and tendon morphology after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with autologous semitendinosus-gracilis graft. Orthopedic Research Society, ORS, New Orleans, LA, March 6-9, 2010.
  12. Shao, MacLeod, Manal, Buchanan Estimation of anterior tibial translation and ligament loading in healthy and ACL-deficient knees during walking. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, August 8-21, Providence, RI. August 8-21, 2010.
  13. MacLeod, Manal, Snyder-Mackler, Buchanan. Lower extremity coordinated mobilization and stabilization during static stance: the unique role of the vasti muscles. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Providence, RI. August 8-21, 2010.
  14. MacLeod, Manal, Snyder-Mackler, Buchanan. Lower extremity neuromuscular coordination during a static stance: mobilization vs stabilization. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, November 13-17, 2010.
  15. MacLeod, Manal, Snyder-Mackler, Buchanan. Effects of task on lower extremity neuromuscular coordination during static stance. Delaware Society for Neuroscience, Newark, December 10, 2010 *Award for best graduate student poster.
  16. Escamilla RF, Zheng N, MacLeod, Imamura R, Edwards WB, Hreljac A, Fleisig GS, Wilk KE, Moorman CT, Andrews JR. Cruciate ligament tensile forces during lunging with varying techniques. American College of Sports Medicine, ACSM, Annual meeting, Seattle, WA, May 27, 2009.
  17. MacLeod, Chimera, Manal, Buchanan Volitional MVC EMG normalization tasks between days. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, State College, PA, August 20-29, 2009
  18. Escamilla, Zheng, MacLeod, Imamura, Edwards, Hreljac, Fleisig, Wilk, Moorman Patellofemoral Compressive Force and Stress During the Forward and Side Lunge With and Without a Stride. American College of Sports Medicine, ACSM, Annual meeting, Long Beach, CA, March 24-27, 2008.
  19. Escamilla, Hreljac, Imamura, MacLeod, Zheng. Cruciate ligament force during the wall squat and one-leg squat. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Stanford, CA, August 22-25, 2007.
  20. Escamilla, Hreljac, Imamura, MacLeod, Zheng. Cruciate ligament force between the forward lunge long and short with and without a stride. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Stanford, CA, August 22-25, 2007.
  21. Escamilla, Bonacci, Burnham, Busch, D’Anna, Edwards, Eliopoulos, MacLeod, Mowbray, Imamura, Hreljac, Andrews. A biomechanical analysis of squatting and lunging type exercises. American College of Sports Medicine, ACSM, Annual meeting, Indianapolis, IN, May 28-31, 2008.
  22. Escamilla, Zheng, Hreljac, Imamura, MacLeod, Edwards, Fleisig, Wilk. Patellofemoral forces and stresses during squat exercises. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Blacksburg, VA, September 6-9, 2006.
  23. Escamilla, Zheng, Hreljac, Imamura, MacLeod, Edwards, Fleisig, Wilk. Patellofemoral forces and stresses during lunge exercises. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Blacksburg, VA, September 6-9, 2006.
  24. Hreljac, Imamura, Escamilla, MacLeod, Kawada, Krogh, Stafford. Ankle and knee joint kinetics in runners with and without lower extremity overuse injuries. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Blacksburg, VA, September 6-9, 2006.
  25. Escamilla, Bonacci, Burnham, Busch, D’Anna, Edwards, Eliopoulos, MacLeod, Hreljac, Imamura, Mowbray. An electromyographic analysis of common lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. California Physical Therapy Association, CPTA, Annual Conference, Sacramento, CA, October 22, 2005.
  26. Edwards, Vavao, Jensen, Furch(maiden name), Belton, Dezfouli, Hreljac. Asymmetries during weighted loads: a comparison between 1-strap and 2-strap conditions. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Portland, OR, September 8-11, 2004
  27. MacLeod, Imamura, Hrejac. Internal kinetic factors and the preferred transition speed in humans. American Society of Biomechanics, ASB, Portland, OR, September 8-11, 2004.

Research Projects/Interests

  1. NIH R01-AR046386 ACL Injured Knee: MRI and Biomechanical Modeling

This work was conducted while I was at University of Delaware, and was focused on neuromuscular and morphological consequences of anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. There are four manuscripts in stages ranging from preparation to second review. These manuscripts are being submitting to the journals Clinical Biomechanics, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, and Journal of Applied Biomechanics. These are all expected to be published within the next year.

  1. NIH F32-AR064129 Knee Osteoarthritis: Meniscus Kinematics and Articular Cartilage Degeneration

This work was conducted while I was at University of California, San Francisco and was focused on meniscus movement within the knee in those with and without knee osteoarthritis to help understand the role the meniscus plays in articular cartilage degeneration. Currently there is one manuscript from this work in second revision, at Skeletal Radiology, and subsequent work will examine longitudinal experimental designs in the coming years (these data are still being collected). Data collection is expected to be completed within the next two years, and publications are expected to be completed within the next three years.

  1. NIH R01-AR062370  Contact Mechanics, Neuromuscular Control, and Cartilage Composition in Knee OA

This work was conducted while I was at University of California, San Francisco and was focused on the biomechanical biomarkers and consequences of knee osteoarthritis. There are currently 7 manuscripts in various stages of preparation to second revision form this work, but data are still being collected on this grant as well. The 7 manuscripts discussed are planned to be completed in the next year. Data collection is expected to be completed within the next two years, and publications are expected to be completed within the next three years.

Professional Associations

  • American Physical Therapy Association
  • Orthopedic Section of the APTA
  • Research Section of the APTA   
  • California Physical Therapy Association
  • American Society of Biomechanics
  • Sigma Xi
  • American College of Sports Medicine
  • Orthopaedic Research Society