Martell's PRIME SITES: World History
This annotated list contains selected History websites organized around a set of four themes: countries, events, individuals, and periods. No attempt has been made to be exhaustive. Typically very few sites are listed in comparison to the number of sites actually available. The quality of the site and the availability of images and substantive text are primary considerations.

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Ancient Egypt
China (Sung & Qing Dynasty)
Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
England (19th Century)
South Africa (20th Century)

Ancient Egypt

Anc Egypt

faering.gif ABZU: Regional Index: Egypt
  An outstanding scholarly resource for the study of Ancient Egypt. Major categories include archaeological sites, art, museums and collections, philology – texts – translations, and resources listed alphabetically by author. All the resources listed by author are available online. Examples of full-text articles are "The Study of the Miracles Which Occurred During the Rule of Khufu" appearing under the philology – texts – translations heading and "Life and Death Under the Pharaohs" under the museums and collections heading. There are thousands of full-text items available. Some of these are in book form.

Ancient Egypt
  This British Museum site is both attractive and enjoyable but lacks in-depth content. There are sections on Egyptian life, gods and goddesses, pharoahs, and pyramids.

Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt
  There are twenty-one pages at this Wikipedia site with its usual well-designed features.

Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt
  The Afterlife, Alchemy, brief descriptions of Ancient Books of the Underworld, Astrology, and other subjects are available at this site.

The Ancient Egypt Site The Ancient Egypt Site
  This attractive site has a History section with several cross-links, mainly to the dynastic periods. There are also descriptions of fourteen monuments, links to two hundred sites; information about recent archaeological finds, a keyword index to hundreds of terms and names with brief annotations; and material on the Egyptian language such as its writing and grammar. The last update occurred in July 2008.

Ancient Egypt: The Mythology Ancient Egypt: The Mythology
  Ancient Egypt: the Mythology contains detailed information about the gods, goddesses and religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptian people. The website is divided into five major sections: the Gods, Myths, Symbols, Land, and Resources. The gods and goddesses section is encyclopedic in its breadth and depth.

Ancient Egyptian Culture Exhibit
  A well-designed attractive site with sections including architecture, art, daily life, maps, and military. The section on daily life has 1 to 2 page descriptions with helpful cross-links of the Nile, astrology, calendar system, priestly caste, and medicine. See the link under medicine ( at Indiana University. It is dedicated to the study of ancient medicine. There is another interesting link to the subject of Plumbing in Egypt.

blueanstar.gif Duke Papyrus Archive
  This fine archive provides electronic access to texts and images of 1,373 papyri from Ancient Egypt. The section Papyri in General includes a nicely illustrated text "Writing in Egypt under Greek and Roman Rule" and another "Late Antique Egypt." The papyri are organized by selected topics and by language. Among the selected topics are cultural aspects, religious aspects, slaves, and women and children. There are images of over 100 papyri in the category of women and children with a full description of each item and a translation.

faering.gif Digital Karnak
  "The colossal site of Karnak is one of the largest temple complexes in the world, with an incredibly rich architectural, ritual, religious, economic, social and political history. The Amun-Ra precinct, which includes an astonishing number of individual temples, shrines and processional ways, stands as a micro-cosmos of ancient Egypt." This UCLA-developed site is wonderful. On the home page one can link to a Temple Complex Overview with links to four other temples. Otherwise one can go to Time Map, Experience Karnak, Browse Archives, or link to Google Earth. Experience Karnak includes the following sections: Development and Chronology, Daily Ritual, Processional Rites and Festivals, and Construction Methods and Building Materials. A Karnak virtual reality model can be placed on a computer by loading it into Google Earth. There are hundreds of images of Karnak and extensive views and descriptions of its many architectural elements such as pylons, columns, and obelisks.

Discovering Egypt Discovering Ancient Egypt
  This site blends the commercial and the educational in a reasonable manner. The interactive and YouTube features of the Pyramids & Temples and Rebuilding Temples sections are interesting.

Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World
  This National Geographic site has a section on the pyramids which includes Kings of the Dead, Tombs Fit for Kings, and Who Built the Pyramids. The site is wonderfully interactive and opens up in interesting directions. There are also other exhibits such as the one on King Tut. News items are informative and often lengthy, e.g., "Third Door Found in Great Pyramid."

Egyptology Resources
  Major sections include the Tomb of Senneferi, institutions and museums, and list of essential resources. Among the essential sites is a link to an 83-page bibliography citing all the articles that appeared in the Annual Egyptological Bibliography from 1996-1998. Full-text articles from the journal Archaeology Online and others are available in the journals, magazines, and newspapers section.

Guardian’s Egypt
  This attractively designed site has a set of well-chosen links to resources on Ancient Egypt, mummies, kings and pharaohs, mythology and religion, and sites and monuments. See especially the online interactive book at the Ancient Egypt Site under the Guardian’s heading Ancient Egypt. A nicely crafted description of general purpose accompanies each link.

History of Egypt
  This attractive and easy to use resource is the Official Internet Site of the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism. It provides an outline of the historical periods and dynasties leading to essays of varying length up to ten pages. There are also helpful cross-links with substantive commentary.

Life in Ancient Egypt Life in Ancient Egypt
  Beautifully illustrated descriptions of daily life, gods and religion, natural world, and other subjects are provided as a context for the display of artifacts in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History collection. This site has added new content in recent years and its twenty-four page guide to life in Egypt will be of assitance to teachers and their students.

Life in Ancient Egypt
  This is a seven page online resource for students.

blueanstar.gifPharaonic Egypt
  This is a very attractive site that opens up wonderfully. Under History, Dynasties, Cultural Chronology, Mythology and Life in Ancient Egypt one finds surprising content nuggets such as a series of letters and in another section a beautiful series of pages on Herodotus and the Pharaohs.

Sung (Song) Dynasty - 960-1279
Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty - 1644-1911

Chinese Emperor

Academic Info China Studies: History
  An annotated directory of Internet resources. The selection is good for history and there are additional equally valuable resources listed under the category of Eras & Studies and Religion & Philosophy. Each of these provides general directories, resources for specific eras or subjects, e.g., Taoism, and reference materials.

China 7 B.C. to China 7 BC to 1279
  A twenty page history from Wang Mang's Revolution to the conclusion of the Sung Dynasty in 1279. Included are sections on Neo-Confucian ethics and the literature of Medieval China.

Chinese Culture
  An impressive compilation of course materials with many full-text document. Under the Quick Guide to Course Handouts and Guides there are three entries to the substantive materials gathered by Paul Halsall on Chinese culture – list of texts on this site, list of images on this site, and other China web sites. In the list of texts section there are original source texts, basic guides to Chinese culture, and locally prepared reference texts including a 31-page annotated bibliography.

Chinese History Research Site
  The outline format is cross-linked to a 16-page bibliography on Modern Chinese History. There are also links to online catalogs and China-related web sites. A 1 to 3 line description is provided for each listing.

Chinese Women in History Chinese Women in History -- Soldiers, Pirates, Scholars, Sages and Rulers
  Thirty women are highlighted in short one or two page biographies. The earliest women are from BCE and the most recent are post 1912. There are numerous articles in Chinese: some of these include poetry or other work.

Classical Historiography for Chinese History
  Contains a 5-page listing of bibliographies, biographies, dictionaries, and related introductory resources, a 14-page listing of electronic resources for Chinese classical studies, and bibliographies on relevant topics. The materials referred to in the bibliographies are in most cases available only in print and are not online. Some of the sites are in Chinese. The listings in the electronic resources section are heavily annotated and some are cross-linked to the sites themselves.

Complete Reference to China/Chinese-Related Web Sites
  More than 8,500 links to China/Chinese web sites are listed. Unfortunately, the Chinese history section has only thirteen sites listed at the present time. Last updated July 2008.

Condensed China
  This Chinese history for beginners has a bibliography and sections on the origins of China, early empire, second empire, and birth of modern China. The descriptions are relatively brief. The section on modern China has 6 pages.

Descendancy The Descendancy of the Ching (Qing) House
  This is a sixteen page "origins" and "short history" of the Ching (Qing) House. There are cross-links. The pages appeared a bit jumbled on my computer.

History of China
  Organized by timeline, history, and sites. The timeline is extensive. An outline format is used for the history section. The source for this section is a history of China published in 1994. Graphics enhance the text. Many of the cross-links are to resources in Chinese.

Internet Guide for Chinese Studies
  A very good resource with twenty-one pages of main entries under the heading of history. Each site is carefully described with lengthy annotations. Essential sites are highlighted. Last updated November 2007.

The Later Empire: The Sung The Later Empire: The Sung
  This World Civilizations site has a four page entry on the Sung Dynasty.

Chinese Literature and Philosophy
  Some of the literary and philosophical texts accessible through this site are in translation such as Sunzi’s The Art of War but many are not. A modest number of more general sites are listed as well.

Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty
  A sixteen page history of the Qing Dynasty at Wikipedia.

Song Dynasty Song Dynasty
  A twenty-two page Wikipedia entry on the Song Dynasty.

Song Dynasty Song Dynasty
  There is an eleven page history of the Song Dynasty wth several maps. The articles on the left sidebar relate to other time periods and events.

Turkey (Ottoman Empire) 1300-1924

Old cotumes

Discover the Ottomans Historians of the Ottoman Empire
  "Initiated in the Fall of 2003, the project Historians of the Ottoman Empire aims at filling an extensive gap in the field of Ottoman Studies by offering scholars a major bio-bibliographical reference book on Ottoman historians." The forty to fifty historians are largely, if not exclusively, Turkish. Their works were written between 1490 and 1925. The biography and reference to works by Abdurrahman Hibri (1604-1658 or 1659) covers eight pages and was written by Klaus Kreiser in February 2007. This is a specialized database originating at Harvard University.

Discover the Ottomans Historical Costumes
  There are one hundred thirteen drawings in this collection from the National Library of Turkey. The various forms of clothing may help in visualizing aspects of the history of the Ottoman Empire. The image heading this section on the Ottoman Empire was taken from this collection. This site has valuable possibilities for the scholar but the language barrier prevented further exploration.

Discover the Ottomans History of the Turks
  There is a ten page history of the Seljuks, Turks and Mongols, as well as a modest number of cross-links.

Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and The Middle East - The Ottomans
  There are 3 pages on the Ottoman Turks and 1 page in the preceding section on the Seljuk Turks.

The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire
  This is a thirty-seven page history of the Ottoman Empire from Wikipedia with numerous cross-links and external links to information in English and Turkish.

The Ottoman Khilafa
  This site is devoted largely to a history of the Ottoman Empire. The descriptions of various aspects of Ottoman history are brief. There is a section on the military ranks with illustrations of uniforms and another with images of each of the caliphs.

Ottoman Sultans The Ottoman Sultans and Caliphs, 1290-1924 AD
  This site is most useful for finding the names and dates of the reign of Middle Eastern sultans, caliphs, and emperors. The content outline includes the Seljuk Sultans and Ottoman Sultans & Caliphs, 1290-1924 A.D. The section on the Ottomans has maps and a brief text.

The Ottoman Turks
  A beautifully illustrated 4-page description of the Ottoman Turks with a few cross-links to other material. This is part of a course The End of Europe’s Middle Ages.

The Ottomans
  There are 1 to 2 page descriptions of the origins of the Ottoman Empire, Suleyman, Selim II, 17th & 18th centuries, and European imperialism and the Balkan crisis.

Turkey - A Country Study
  The Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress prepared this report on Turkey. A content outline is used to provide access to 2 to 3 pages descriptions of various topics. Chapter 1 – Historical Settings has sections on the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire.

England (19th century)

Princess Victoria

A young Queen Victoria (1837)

Britannia Internet: British History
  An attractive site with timelines, documents, biographies, essays, and reading lists on the history of Britain. The 19th century Age of Empire section has the biographies of the monarchs and prime ministers and some texts including Europe in Retrospect: A Brief History of the Past Two Hundred Years.

British History Online British History Online
  British History Online is a digital library containing some of the core printed primary and secondary sources for the medieval and modern history of the British Isles. It was created by the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust. Local history, historical geography, parliamentary and other sources can be located by any of eight regions in the country (

GenDocs: Victorian London
  Contains lists of streets, churches, cemeteries, lodging houses, inns, taverns & public houses, census indexes and other data about aspects of the city of London in the 1800s. Some of the lists are organized with A-Z indexes to facilitate searching by alphabet. Also included are a Timeline of British history, Greenwood’s Map of London (1827) with zoom and directional features, and population charts of Great Britain and other parts of the British Isles going back to the 1600s. There are links to related sites.

Inside Victorians Inside Victorians
  This BBC site contains approximately fifty two-to-eight page essays on the Victorian Age. There is an overview of the age, daily life, women's work, health and welfare, Queen Victoria and her prime ministers and numerous other sujbects.

Internet Library of Early Journals
  This is a digital library of 6 key 18th and 19th century British journals – Annual Register, Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, The Builder, Gentlemen’s Magazine, Notes & Queries, and Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Substantial runs (at least 20 consecutive years) of each journal can be browsed. Four titles are currently available to be searched by keyword. A search of Notes and Queries for former Prime Minister Robert Peel retrieved 80 entries.

19th Century Britain Letters of Queen Victoria
  The letters of Queen Victoria can be found at the Internet Archive. The letters in three volumes date from 1837 to 1861.

19th Century Britain19th Century Britain
  This section of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook contains thirty or so links to material on 19th Century Britain, many connecting to full-text materials, e.g., an eighteen page article on the Poor Laws.

faering.gif Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia: British History 1700-1920
  This outstanding site is full of valuable information attractively presented with a superb use of cross-links and a wide range of historical topics. The section on Members of Parliament covers the period 1750-1950. It contains substantive biographies of scores of individuals. Biographies in the sections on The Monarchy 1760-1930 and The Prime Ministers 1780-1950 are similarly strong. The section on the Emancipation of Women 1780-1920 contains resources on subjects such as marriage, schooling, pressure groups, strategy & tactics and parliamentary reform acts. The section on Child Labour 1700-1900 describes life in the factory, provides biographies of factory workers, and offers some statistics, e.g., comparative weight of factory and non-factory children.

Victoria of the United Kingdom Victoria of the United Kingdom
  This is a fourteen page Wikipedia biography of Queen Victoria.

Victoria Research Web
  Created for the scholarly study of the nineteenth century in Britain this fine site has a wealth of bibliographic and other information. In the Archives section there are entries for Key Works of Reference, 19th Century Census Data, and Guide to Victorian Holdings in Selected Archives in Britain and the U.S. Most of the resources are only available through a research trip to the location but some can be obtained online, e.g., census data for 1831, 1851, and 1881 are available from The Data Archive at the University of Essex. The Other Victorian Resources section has an excellent annotated guide to related areas to explore on the Web.

Victorian Dictionary The Victorian Dictionary: Exploring Victorian London
  The Victorian Dictionary covers hundreds of topics, including buildings, clothing & fashions, legal system, politics, and women. Some of the sections are extensive. The buildings section, for example, has probably a hundred entries. There are photographs of many buildings and lengthy descriptions of some -- the six page essay "Houses of Old London."

blueanstar.gif Victorian Web
  A major resource with connections from the subjects of Victorianism, Political Context, Social Context, and Economics to historical outlines with links to a wide range of materials including essays by professors and students and textual materials from the 19th century and earlier. There is a lengthy timeline in the Political Context section. Other subjects such as philosophy and science are covered.

candleS.gif Victorian Web Sites
  A massive site with access to a wonderful array of full-text resources. The section Victorian Web Sites provides links to 312 sites. The 17-page section on 19th Century British and Irish Authors lists authors and their works in chronological order. The majority of these works is available online. The 35-page section British and Irish Authors on the Web is equally strong with 790 authors listed and a significant number of full-text resources accessible at many of the sites. English Literature on the Web is another important strength of this fine site. Last updated January 2007.

South Africa (20th century)

South Africa

blueanstar.gif Africa South of the Sahara: South Africa: History
  An excellent selection of well annotated sites on the history of South Africa. Africa South of the Sahara has an impressive 28 pages of sites on African history.

candleS.gif African National Congress
  The Index to ANC Information leads to ANC Historical Documents, Books, and other topics of interest. The section on Historical Documents of the African National Congress (ANC) provides basic documents about the ANC in categories such as major campaigns and struggles against apartheid, organizations allied or associated with the ANC, boycotts, biographies of leaders, and the transition period. There are 10 complete books including Class & Colour in South Africa, 1850-1950 and Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion. Articles from Mayibuye, the Journal of the African National Congress appear under Publications.
  The Historical Library has resources on Zulu History, Voortrekkers, Anglo-Zulu War, First War of Independence, Anglo-Boer War and Bambatha Rebellion in 1906. Many of the battles are described. Some have images. There is also a list of links.

Historical Papers
  Significant collections in the Department of Historical Documents, University of Witwatersrand Library are listed. Full-text material can be found by clicking on the Truth & Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Project and Traces of the Truth site.

Index on Africa: South Africa
  Index on Africa is a gateway to information on Africa on the Internet, with over 3.800 links sorted by country, subject and news. Valuable headings are Facts and Statistics and Security and Conflict. Enter the keyword "history" in the search engine for links to sites such as Historical Images of Apartheid.

Perspectives the South African War Perspectives: The South African War: Original and Contemporary Sources
  Full length books and chapters are included in this history of the South African War of the early 1900s. Most of the material was written shortly after the war.

SouthAfrica.Info South Gateway to the Nation
  This site has everyday utility as a source of news about South Africa. There is "A short history of South Africa" and links to other sites, including one for Nelson Mandela.

South Africa Page
  This list of sites on South Africa is modest in size. There are brief descriptions of some sites. South Africa Page is part of the larger African Studies WWW at the University of Pennsylvania.

blueanstar.gifSouth African History Online
  A very good site with considerable content. There are Timelines and a People's section with more than a hundred biographies. In the People's section under Politics and Labour one can find the name of Nelson Madela. Click on his name and find a lengthy biography. A Features section has a wonderful essay on Imbokodo: The Women's Struggle: 1900-1994. The Online Library leads to a page with Interviews and Letters, History through Pictures, Articles & Documents, and Speeches & Public Statements. Under Articles & Documents there are over a hundred full-test items. An example is Raymond Suttner's twenty-seven page article "Transformation of Political Parties in Africa Today."

South African Military History Society The South African Military History Society
  Available here are full-text article in Military History Journal for the period 1967-2002. Only a few articles since 2002 are full-text. Other features of the Society's site are the diaries of participants in various wars prior to the end of British rule in South Africa.

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