Martell's PRIME SITES: World History
This annotated list contains selected History websites organized around a set of four themes: countries, events, individuals, and periods. No attempt has been made to be exhaustive. Typically very few sites are listed in comparison to the number of sites actually available. The quality of the site and the availability of images and substantive text are primary considerations.

Stunning (visual impact) spirit-stick.gif
Essential candleS.gif
Excellent blueanstar.gif
Highly exceptional faering.gif


King Tutankhamun
Alexander the Great
Cleopatra VII
Constantine I
King Arthur
Elizabeth I
Napoleon Bonaparte
Robert Peel
Florence Nightingale
Rosa Luxemburg

Nelson Mandela

King Tutankhamun 1341-1323 B.C.


Ancient Egypt
  This very attractive British Museum site provides general information on Egyptian Life, Georgraphy, Gods & Goddesses, Mummification, Pharaohs, Pyraminds, Temples, Time, Trade and Writing.

faering.gif Ancient Egypt
  This is a thirteen page New World Encyclopedia article.

Guardian's King Tut
  The finest site for linking to other resources about the king and the discovery of his tomb. The diaries of Howard Carter who found the tomb in 1922 are included. These cover the first excavation season in 1922/23.

King Tut’ankhamun
  A virtual museum display of artifacts from the Pre-Dynastic period, Middle Kingdom, and other Dynasties with brief descriptions. King Tut’ankhamun’s 18th Dynasty receives special attention. The entries generally follow a "Tour Egypt" advertisement.

spirit-stick.gif Tutankhamen
  A visually stunning site with excellent images, descriptions of the artifacts, and concise historical information about the king and the finding of his tomb. There is a three page discussion of Who Killed Tut? There is a section on Howard Carter, discoverer of the tomb, and three Real Video sequences. Start on the Egyptian government's Ancient Egypt home page and click on Tutankhamen. Moving around this site has a bit of mystery to it.

Wiki Tutankhamun Tutankhamun
  An eleven page Wikipedia article with numerous internal links and other useful features.

candleS.gifTutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation
  This Griffith Institute Oxford University site's goal is to make a complete record of Howard Carter's excavation of the tomb of Tutankhanum. There are documents in the original and a database of the items found in the tomb.

Confucius 551- 479 B.C.


The Analects of Confucius
  This translation of the Analects has forty three pages. The site, Exploring Ancient World Cultures: Readings from Ancient China, has not been updated recently and has many broken links..

  A sixteen page biography of Confucius in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. There are also lengthy essays featuring Laozi, Mencius, Mohism, Taoism, Xunzi, and Zhuangzi. This site was updated was recently as May 2007.

  The site has ten pages of quotations and representative ideograms from the Analects and a list of Confucian Chinese classics.

Resources for East Asian Language and Thought
  In Charles Muller’s E-Texts and Reference Works there are Five Classics of Traditional East Asian Thought including translations of Confucius’ Analects, Great Learning, and Doctrine of the Mean as well as selections from the work of Mencius, one of Confucius’ students. Updated July 2008.

Alexander the Great


Alexander the Great
  A lively site with a wonderful use of graphics and layout with extensive information about Alexander and his times as well as many very effective cross-links. Twenty three pages written by John Popovic who maintains the site. There are dozens of sculptures of Alexander.

candleS.gifAlexander the Great
  This site has a large index to material on Alexander, including many full-text material from ancient texts, e.g., Plutarch, Diodorus, and Q. Curtius Rufus. It has a lengthy biography of Alexander in eighteen parts by Jona Lendering. There are also fifteen essays and dozens of related subjects.

candleS.gifAlexander the Great
  This Hellenic site is large, impressive, and well-designed. The section on Science and Technology is twenty-five pages and on Warfare, eighteen pages. The Alexander section has a beautiful twenty-three page biography with multiple cross links. There is a chronology and scores of biographies and links. The link to Alexander's elephants is four pages.

Alexander Alexander the Great
  A Frank Smitha lengthy biography of Alexander on his Macrohistory site. Also see "Alexander's Empire Disintegrates."

Alexander Alexander the Great
  This is a nine page biography of Alexander with several cross links. By changing the web address to the "History" segment one can retrieve a chronolgy of Alexander's life and a forty-three page Plutarch treatment of Alexander's life.

Alexander Alexander the Great
  This is a seventeen page Wikipedia biography of Alexander with numerous cross links. There are also many images.

Alexander Alexander III "the Great"
  A four page biography of Alexander with a link to John Dryden's translation of Plutarch's Life of Alexander. There are also several good links to other material.

Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra VII
  A 5-page biography of Cleopatra.

Cleopatra Cleopatra VII
  A Wikipedia seven page biography of Cleopatra with numerous cross links.

Cleopatra Cleopatra VII: Thea Neotera
  A fifteen page biography of Cleopatra with images. There is a link to Jacob Abbott's forty-six page biography of Cleopatra, "Makers of History, Cleopatra."

Cleopatra Life of Cleopatra VII: The Last Pharoah of Egypt
  A seven-page biography of Cleopatra with a list of books about Cleopatra.

Constantine I (273 – 336 A.D.)



Constantine I Constantine I
  A sixteen page biography by Hans Pohsander and by clicking on "Additional Entry" just above this author's name one can find another eleven page biography of Constantine by Michael DiMaio.

Constantine the Great
  A ten page biography of Constantine from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.

Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine
  An 83-page excerpt about the Emperor Constantine from a larger work by Eusebius.

Medieval Sourcebook. Selected Sources: The End of the Classical World
  Under the outline entry "The Triumph of the Church" are several texts about Constantine including The Conversion of Constantine by Eusebius and laws regulating the Catholic Church.

Charlemagne (742 – 814 A.D.)



blank icon The Age of Fable: Legends of Charlemagne
  Includes the full-text of twenty-six chapters from volume 4 of Bullfinch’s Mythology: Legends of Charlemagne or Romances of the Middle Ages..

blank icon Charlemagne
  A twenty-seven page Wikipedia biography of Charlemagne with images and multiple cross-links. See also Wikipedia's three page "Carolingian Empire."

blank icon Charlemagne
  An eight page biography of Charlemagne from the Catholic Encyclopedia..

blank icon Charlemagne the King: An Biography from Will Durant's Story of Civilization
  A six page biography of Charlemagne.

blank icon The Frankish Empire
  A three page essay with links to other resources

blank icon The Historical Charlemagne
  A two page biography of Charlemagne from Compton's Encyclopedia.

blank icon The Life of Charlemagne
  This is a nineteen page essay on Charlemagne by Francois Guizot. It is a chapter in a twenty-eight chapter book by James Bryce entitled The Holy Roman Empire.

blank icon Medieval Sourcebook: Selected Sources: Carolingians and After
  A rich source of textual materials about Charlemagne and the Carolingian Dynasty. Includes the full-text of Einhard’s Life of Charlemagne. Einhard was a contemporary of Charlemagne.

blank icon Timeless Myths: Songs of Deeds: Charlemagne
  The Charlemagne material is embedded in a section entitled Song of Deeds within a King Arthur section. There is a six page Life of Charlemagne and extensive material on the Twelve Peers, Frankish Knights, and Saracens (eight pages). Access is also available to the complete Song of Roland and Song of El Cid, with lengthy introductions.

King Arthur

Death of Arthur

The Age of Chivalry or Legends of King Arthur
  Includes the full-text of 23 chapters from volume 3 of the classic Bullfinch’s Mythology: The Age of Chivalry or Legends of King Arthur.

Arthurian Legends Arthurian Legend
  Full text of Malory's Le Morte d'Arhtur. Brief and expanded ummaries of Caxton's twenty-one books of Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. The eighteen wonderful illustrations of Le Morte d"Arthur by Francoise Taylor provided the raison d'etre for this site. Twelve are available at this site. There is also a links page.

blueanstar.gif Arthurian Resources
  This well-developed, scholarly site by Thomas Green has considerable content, much of which has been created by Green. There is his thirty-five page "The Historicity and Historicisation of Arthur," a twenty page "A Gazetteer of Arthurian Onomastic and Topographic Folklore," and much more.

Camelot Project: Arthurian Texts, Images, Bibliographies, and Basic Information
  A major site with an impressive gallery of text and images from the Middle Ages to the present. The King Arthur’s Court section is a rich source of information about major court characters. Arthur’s biography alone contains 8 complete medieval texts, over 40 other full-text entries many of which are poems, and numerous images. The 15-page Author Index links to hundreds of full-text materials and the 11-page Artist Index does the same for images. The Arthurian bibliography is extensive.

Blank icon King Arthur
  A series of brief essays by David Nash Ford, including a five page biography of Arthur. There is a three page article "Magical Glastonbury" by Geoffrey Ashe and a six page Arthurian Resources section.

Blank icon King Arthur: A Man for the Ages
  This site has a list of People (seven pages), Places (four pages), and Things (three pages), all with cross links. There are nine literature reviews, responses to frequently asked questions about Arthur and some full-text material, e.g., poetry.

Blank icon King Arthur and the Holy Grail
  This site has scores of links to a wide variety of Arthurian themes.

candleS.gif Timeless Myths: Arthurian Legends
  This section of the greater site is very deep with material. It is divided into three parts. The first is Camelot, under which is a seventeen page biography of King Arthur and sections on Merlin (thirty pages), the Round Table (sixty pages), Arthurian women (forty-five pages) and Minor Characters (twenty-eight pages), The second, The Age of Chivalry, is six pages and has a twenty-one page Life of King Arthur, the Grail Legend (thirty-two pages), which has additional extensive sub-parts. Tales of the Knights has sections leading into classic material on the subject. The third part, Song of Deeds, relates to Charlemagne.

Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603)


Elizabeth I
  There is a six page biography, some quotes, poems and speeches by Elizabeth, twenty general essays and articles, and a fine set of additional sources with many biographies and other materials including images.

Elizabeth I
  At this official website of the British monarchy there is a 4-page biography of Elizabeth and one of her speeches.

Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)
  Click as indicated at the bottom of a four page biography of Elizabeth I. The new page includes a "brief" biography of Elizabeth by Heather Thomas followed by nine other sections describing her life in greater detail. This section also has a timeline of her life and a bibliography.

Elizabeth I Elizabeth I: Queen of England
  This well-designed site includes a brief biography of Elizabeth I, a three page gallery of images with captions, a speech, a report, a Pope's declaration, and poetry of the Queen.

Elizabeth I Elizabethan Age
  This is an interesting site with many sub-themes connecting to the major subjects on the first page: Elizabethan England, the times, life, food, age, clothing, theater, recipes, and biographies. Under Elizabethan inventions one finds "frozen chicken."

blueanstar.gifQueen Elizabeth I
  This site has dozens of sections covering the usual subjects but also including the Queen's Wardrobe, All the Queen's Men, Court Life, Elizabethan Women and Elizabethan Food. There are eight essay, a chronology of events, and an extensive bibliography. The biography is interesting. The Early Years are broken into Birth of a Princess, A difficult childhood, The troubled teens, and Heir to the throne.

blueanstar.gifQueen Elizabeth I
  This is an attractive site with a lengthy biography of Elizabeth that continues for several pages (click on Continue Reading). There are forty-one Primary Resources consisting of poems, letters, and speeches of Elizabeth, a wonderful images page, and under Secondary Sources, E. S. Beesly's 1892 biography, Queen Elizabeth.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David (1812)

The Age of the French Wars 1792-1815
  Marjorie Bloy's site has sections on Napoleonic France 1799-1804, Peninsular Campaigns, The Moscow Campaign, The Hundred Days, and The Reasons for Napoleon's Defeat.

France During the French Revolution and Under Napoleon Bonarparte
  A twelve page annotated chronology of civil and military events by Richard Orsinger.

Life of Napoleon Life of Napoleon Bonarparte with a Sketch of Josephine
  This appears to be a full length book by Ida Tarbell that originates from the International World History Project. The book has over twenty chapters covering many aspects of Napoleon's life.

Literature on the Age of Napoleon Literature on the Age of Napoleon
  There are eighteen pages linked to digital Napoleonic essays, history, and memoirs. This includes a thirteen page Literary and Historical Chronology on the Age of Napoleon. One can also find the full-text of Clausewitz's classic, On War and Burnham's British Memoirs of the Napoleonic Wars. The bibliography is lengthy. Most of the digital material is in French.

Literature on the Age of Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte Internet Guide
  There is a four page article on "Napoleon and the Franch Revolution." On the Link Guide page click on and type "Napoleon Bonaparte" in the search box. The estimated 50+ pages Napoleon's biography come from the Encyclopedia Britannica. This Internet Guide site by Paul Hilferink was last updated in May 2007.

Literature on the Age of Napoleon Napoleon I (Bonaparte)
  This is a ten page biography of Napoleon I from the Catholic Encylclopedia. There are numerous valuable cross-links to other entries in the Encyclopedia

Literature on the Age of Napoleon Napoleon I of France
  This twenty-five page Wikipedia biography of Napoleon I has the usual cross-links, maps and other images, and extensive notes and references. Under "Napoleonic Wars" one can click on "Main Article: Napoleonic Wars" and retrieve Wikipedia's thirteen page article on the subject. There are also links to Project Gutenberg and its full-text biographies of Napoleon.

faering.gif The Napoleon Series
  An outstanding site. This electronic magazine is dedicated to Napoleon and his times. It contains over 10,200 articles, maps, illustrations, reviews, photographs, and charts. The Military section alone has hundreds of entries. There is also Research (primarily non-military), Reviews (new and out-of-print materials), and Links sections. Note especially the Napoleon Himself section under Research Subjects.

Napoleonic Guide Napoleonic Guide
  This is an attractive site although there is not a great deal of content on any one page. Nonetheless, there are ten sections under Napoleon, eight under the Era of Napoleon, ten under Warfare, and six under War at Sea. There are images and brief biographies of the Leaders against Napoleon and of Napoleon's Leading Soldiers. There are numerous cross-links.

Napoleonic Literature
  On the very first page it is suggested that students click on "start here." This connects to a book written in 1850 by J. T. Headly entitled Napoleon and His Marshals. By using the Site Search Engine one can retrieve a great wealth of information. For example, by inserting "Waterloo" one can retrieve forty-six pages of entries to full-text material. This site by John Schneider was last updated in September 2008.

Napoleonic Primary Sources Napoleonic Primary Sources
  This is a valuable site for those who read French. It contains the Civil Code, the complete text of 3,660 printed working documents, 150 letters, and 255 drawings.

Napoleonic Literature Napoleonic War Series
  Four articles from the War Times Journal, including Edward Blanchard’s nicely illustrated 9-page "The French Revolt and Empire," six archives with the dispatches of Nelson and Wellington, the reminiscences of a Marshal of France, and selections of Napoleon’s correspondence.

Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Homepage
  This site has a twelve page Home Page with links to 286 articles on Napoleon's battles and other subjects. In the second paragraph one can link to a seven page biography of Napoleon. Napoleonic Wars is part of the Military History Encyclopedia on the Web.

Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Homepage
  This site has a twelve page Home Page with links to 286 articles on Napoleon's battles and other subjects. In the second paragraph one can link to a seven page biography of Napoleon. Napoleonic Wars is part of the Military History Encyclopedia on the Web.

Robert Peel (1788-1850)

Robert Peel

Britain's Prime Ministers
  A one page biography of Robert Peel from a Britain's Prime Ministers site.

robert Peel Robert Peel
  A seven page biography of Robert Peel from Wikipedia.

Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850)
  This site contains twenty-three pages of biographies of Peel from various encycloped1as.

The Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia of British History: Prime Ministers 1780-1900
  This site contains a four page biography of Peel with numerous cross-links to other subjects, e.g., the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1845.

candleS.gif Works by & about Robert Peel
  These works are from the Internet Archive. There are thirty-five books of Peel's opinions, speeches, private papers, and memoirs; and thirteen biographies of him. The books were digitized as images from the originals, which are all out-of-print. Thus, one views the actual book. One moves through it by clicking page by page.

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)



Collected works The Collected Works of Florence Nightingale
  This site has a two page biography of Florence Nightingale from the Biography of Women Mathematicians. There are six short papers on Nightingale and Public Health Care and six on Nightingale and Spirituality. There is also a picture album and an article, "Florence Nightingale and European Wars."

F Nightingale Florence Nightingale
  This Spartacus Educational site has an eight page biography of Florence Nightingale, letters, and other material.

F Nightingale Florence Nightingale
  There is a short introduction to Florence Nightingale, a set of timelines, a scrapbook with pamphlets, leaflets, and drawings, and an introduction to a recording by Nightingale from 1890. Both can be heard with RealAudio. There are also suggested readings and links. This site is hosted by Country Joe McDonald.

F Nightingale Florence Nightingale
  A eight page biography of Florence Nightingale from Wikipedia.

F Nightingale Florence Nightingale
  This is the full-text of the 140 page 1912 book by Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing; What It Is, and What It Is Not. This book is avaible through Google Scholar as is Nightingale's 1863 Notes on Hospitals ( ) and 1861 Notes on Nursing for the Labouring Classes (,M1 ). Other works by this author may also be available through Google Scholar, merely enter the title in the search area.

F Nightingale Florence Nightingale Museum
  Site has a three page biography of Florence Nightingale and two essays about her – Image & Reality and Florence Nightingale’s Statistical Diagrams.

F Nightingale Florence Nightingale: The Lady with the Lamp
  A BBC selection with an eight page essay on Florence Nightingale by Mark Bostridge.

Modern History Sourcebook: Florence Nightingale: Rural Hygiene
  A 4-page essay from the Selected Writings of Florence Nightingale.

A Selection of Letters Written by Florence Nightingale
  A selection of thirty-nine letters with a chronological and alphabetical listing. Last updated January 2001.

Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919)

Rosa Luxemburg


Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg
  A five page biography of Rosa Luxemburg.

Rosa Luxemburg: A Socialist With a Human Face
  A fifteen page biography of Rosa Luxemburg by Beverly Merrick..

Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg Internet Archive
  There are sixty-eight articles by Rosa Luxemburg at this site. The biography is two pages in lenght and is part of a glossary of people at this Marxist writers' site.

Nelson Mandela


candleS.gif African National Congress
  The ANC website has been reorganized in recent years. This has led to improvements but Nelson Mandela is no longer featured as prominently. Under the category of Documents there are Books (7), one of which is The Struggle for Liberation in South Africa, Articles (70), Collections (11), Leaflets (26), Declarations (16), Policy Documents (31), and Speeches (59). The Early Years section under Collections covers 1879-1927.

The Mandela Page
  Nelson Mandela's personal page at the African National Conference site. It includes speeches, photographs, articles, documents, leaflets, and other types of material. Also contains link to African National Congress (ANC) historical documents.

Mandela Speaks
  Selected speeches, statements, and writings of Nelson Mandela from 1950s to the present.

Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela
  A thirty-three page biography of Nelson Mandela in Wikipedia with its usual numerous cross-links

Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela Foundation
  This site includes a five page biography of Nelson Mandela, a four page timeline, and keyword/phrase databases on speeches, bibliography and Mandela materials. There is a 2004 photo essay and a series of publications, including the full text of his Annual Lectures to the Foundation and booklets, one of which is titled Social Cohesion.

Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
  A three-part biography of Nelson Mandela.

L.button.gif R.button.gif